Background: Sri Lanka is one of the Asian countries mainly rely on herbal medicines for snake bites. A herbal paste consist of nine medicinal plants have been using for snake bites and clinically proven its efficacy. In the present study, an attempt was done to carry out chemical analysis of the paste.
Methods: Chemical analysis were carried out for the herbal paste in terms of (a) phytochemical screening (b) development of Thin Layer Chromatography fingerprint (c) antioxidant activities.
Results: Phenols, tannins, steroids, saponins and cardiac glycosides were present whereas both flavonoids and alkaloids were absent in the paste. In addition, 14 spots were observed under 254 nm and 366 nm whereas 17 spots were observed after spraying vanillin sulphate in the Thin Layer Chromatography fingerprint. Total polyphenols in the herbal paste was 94.15 ± 5.32 mg gallic acid equivalents/g of extract. Moreover, IC50 value was 628.4 ± 6.5 µg/ml for DPPH assay whereas IC50 value was 180.9 ± 2.3 µg/ml for ABTS assay.
Conclusion: Herbal paste was rich in chemical constituents and showed potent in vitro antioxidant activity.
Aim: To compare the phytochemicals and antimicrobial activities of Pterocarpus mildbraedii Harms and Xylopia aethiopica(Dual) A.Rich
Methodology: The leaves of P. mildbraedii and X. aethiopica were collected, washed, air-dried,
ground and each extracted with n-hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol. The extracts were analysed for the presence of phytochemicals. Antimicrobial analyses were also carried out on the extracts.
Results: Alkaloids, saponins, flavonoids, phenols and resins were found in all the extracts of both plants. As the polarity of the solvents used increased, the abundance of saponins, tannins and phenols increased in both plants. Also the abundance of steroids decreased as the polarity of solvents used increased in both plants. Saponins, tannins and phenols were found to have high percentage composition in P. mildbraedii while alkaloids and flavonoids were very high in X. aethiopica. Generally extracts of X. aethiopica showed more activity against the bacteria than the P. mildbraedii. S. aureus was only susceptible to ethyl acetate leaf extract of X.aethiopica. The ethyl acetate extract of both plants showed inhibition to the growth of E. coli. N-hexane extract of X. aethiopica was the only extract which showed against the one of two fungi used.
Conclusion: The two plants contained many metabolites which have been attributed to the antimicrobial activities exhibited by the two plants. These metabolites should be isolated and the subsequent development of the metabolites in formulation of drugs.