Open Access Minireview Article

Antioxidant Potentials of Adansonia digitata (Baobab) Fruit Pulp: A Mini-Review

Eduitem S. Otong, Sunday A. Musa

South Asian Research Journal of Natural Products, Page 18-27

Background: Antioxidant is any substance that has the ability to delay, prevent or remove oxidative damage to a target molecule. The review is aimed at itemizing the components of baobab fruit pulp with antioxidant capabilities.

Methods: Database were search for articles from the Directory of Open Access Journals, PubMed, Google Scholar, Springer, Science Direct using key words such as composition of baobab fruit pulp, antioxidant properties of baobab fruit pulp, antioxidant, reactive oxygen species and oxidative stress.

Results: Boabab fruit pulp is a very good source of nutrient with a lot of antioxidant components such as vitamin C, Beta carotene, flavonoids, phenols, zinc etc. These antioxidant components help to reduce reactive oxygen species including free radicals such as superoxide anion, hydroxyl radical, as well as non-radical molecules like hydrogen peroxide, singlet oxygen. Baobab fruit pulp carries out the antioxidant activities through the following processes: scavenging and neutralizing free radicals, singlet oxygen quenching, superoxide radical scavenging, hydrogen donation, metal chelating, enzymes inhibition, peroxide decomposing and synergies. They also help in activating antioxidant enzymes, reduce α-tocopherol radicals, reduce nitrosative stress, prevent oxidases, and increase levels of uric acid and low molecular weight molecules which ultimately help to reduce oxidation in the long run.

Conclusion: Baobab fruit pulp is a super fruit with a lot of antioxidant capabilities due to the present of several components like vitamin C, Beta carotene, flavonoids, phenols, zinc etc. These components work in different ways to eliminate reactive oxygen species and by extension prevent oxidative stress.

Open Access Minireview Article

Literature Review on the Phytochemistry and Pharmaco-Biological, Nutritional and Cosmetic Properties of Lippia multiflora and New Research Perspectives

Masengo Ashande Colette, Emmanuel Lengbiye Moke, Clément Inkoto Liyongo, Benjamin Zoawe Gbolo, Dorothée Dinangayi Tshilanda, Damien Sha-Tshibey Tshibangu, Robijaona Rahelivololoniaina Baholy, Ilumbe Bayeli Guy, Koto-te-Nyiwa Ngbolua, Pius T. Mpiana, Mudogo Virima

South Asian Research Journal of Natural Products, Page 35-48

Background: Lippia multiflora is a wild/spontaneous food plant with numerous pharmaco-therapeutic activities and rich in terpenic and phenolic bioactive compounds whose valorization as nutaceutical can help a better management of chronic diseases.

Objective: To make an inventory of the current knowledge on the plant in order to direct the future research in the hypothesis that this plant contains chemical groups which would act either individually or in synergy, in order to confer several properties to him of which the anti-sickle cell activity.

Methodology: A non-exhaustive bibliographic search for articles published on the plant was conducted in several electronic databases (Science Direct, PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, Google scholar, SciELO, etc.) using as search strategy the following keywords: Lippia multiflora, phytochemistry, pharmacology and toxicology.

Results and discussion: It appears from this study that the chemical composition of the essential oil is variable within the species L. multiflora. These chemical varieties also called chemotypes are endowed with numerous pharmacological properties (antifree radical, antibacterial, antiinflammatory, antiproliferative, hypotensive, antimalarial, antifungal activities, etc.). This plant also contains anti-sickle cell phytomarkers such as ursolic acid (a triterpene acid) and verbascoside (a phenolic compound). L. multiflora reduces oxidative stress by increasing the content of reduced glutathione (essential for the protection of erythrocytes) and nitric oxide (vasodilator effect).

Conclusion and perspectives: The results of this literature review show that in addition to its numerous documented biological properties, L. multiflora also reduces oxidative stress by increasing the content of glutathione and nitric oxide and can thus relieve sickle cell disease. However, the anti-sickle cell activity of this plant species has not yet been scientifically validated although the plant is used in the treatment of anemia in Traditional Medicine. Therefore, it is desirable that a more thorough study be carried out on L. multiflora in order to determine the different chemotypes from the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) and then to evaluate the anti-sickling, antihemolytic and anti-radical activities and the effect of these chemotypes on the osmotic fragility of sickle cell erythrocytes.

Open Access Minireview Article

Phytochemistry and Pharmacology of Aframomum angustifolium (Sonn.) K. Schum (Zingiberaceae): A Mini Review

Clément L. Inkoto, Koto-Te-Nyiwa Ngbolua, Patrick E. Bokungu, Colette A. Masengo, Jeff B. Iteku, Dorothée D. Tshilanda, Damien S. T. Tshibangu, Pius T. Mpiana

South Asian Research Journal of Natural Products, Page 69-84

According to the World Health Organization (WHO), more than 80% of the population in Africa in general and in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) in particular, resorts to Traditional Medicine to solve the problem of primary health care. In this study we had reviewed the relevance of A. angustifoolium in phytochemical composition, traditional use and biological activities based on scientific results obtained from Google Scholar, PubMed, Sciencedirect, Web of Science, Scopus and Chemical Abstracts. Moreover, after compiling the research data of several authors, the results show that this plant is of great interest because it has a wide range of biological properties like antioxidant, antiageing, antiparasitic, anti-nociceptive activities. This wide range of biological properties of A. angustifolium would be much attributed to the essential oil compounds such as β-pinene and β-caryophyllene which are the major compounds in this plant. This review will therefore guide future research on the use of A. angustifolium β-caryophyllene rich-extract as anti-inflammatory medicine for the management of Sickle cell anemia.

Open Access Original Research Article

Chemical Analysis of Anti-Venom Herbal Paste Use in Sri Lanka

W. M. S. S. K. Kulatunga, L. D. A. M. Arawwawala

South Asian Research Journal of Natural Products, Page 1-7

Background: Sri Lanka is one of the Asian countries mainly rely on herbal medicines for snake bites. A herbal paste consist of nine medicinal plants have been using for snake bites and clinically proven its efficacy. In the present study, an attempt was done to carry out chemical analysis of the paste.

Methods: Chemical analysis were carried out for the herbal paste in terms of (a) phytochemical screening (b) development of Thin Layer Chromatography fingerprint (c) antioxidant activities.

Results: Phenols, tannins, steroids, saponins and cardiac glycosides were present whereas both flavonoids and alkaloids were absent in the paste. In addition, 14 spots were observed under 254 nm and 366 nm whereas 17 spots were observed after spraying vanillin sulphate in the Thin Layer Chromatography fingerprint. Total polyphenols in the herbal paste was 94.15 ± 5.32 mg gallic acid equivalents/g of extract. Moreover, IC50 value was 628.4 ± 6.5 µg/ml for DPPH assay whereas IC50 value was 180.9 ± 2.3 µg/ml for ABTS assay.

Conclusion: Herbal paste was rich in chemical constituents and showed potent in vitro antioxidant activity.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Phytochemical and Antimicrobial Analyses of Leaves of Pterocarpus mildbraedii Harms and Xylopia aethiopica (Dual) A. Rich

C. E. Anarado, C. J. O. Anarado, E. E. Okechukwu, F. M. Chukwubueze, G. E. Kenechukwu

South Asian Research Journal of Natural Products, Page 8-17

Aim:  To compare the phytochemicals and antimicrobial activities of Pterocarpus mildbraedii Harms and Xylopia aethiopica(Dual) A.Rich

Methodology: The leaves of P. mildbraedii and X. aethiopica were collected, washed, air-dried,

ground and each extracted with n-hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol. The extracts were analysed for the presence of phytochemicals. Antimicrobial analyses were also carried out on the extracts.

Results: Alkaloids, saponins, flavonoids, phenols and resins were found in all the extracts of both plants. As the polarity of the solvents used increased, the abundance of saponins, tannins and phenols increased in both plants. Also the abundance of steroids decreased as the polarity of solvents used increased in both plants.  Saponins, tannins and phenols were found to have high percentage composition in P. mildbraedii while alkaloids and flavonoids were very high in X. aethiopica. Generally extracts of X. aethiopica showed more activity against the bacteria than the P. mildbraedii. S. aureus was only susceptible to ethyl acetate leaf extract of X.aethiopica. The ethyl acetate extract of both plants showed inhibition to the growth of E. coli. N-hexane extract of X. aethiopica  was the only extract which showed against the one of two fungi used.

Conclusion: The two plants contained many metabolites which have been attributed to the antimicrobial activities exhibited by the two plants. These metabolites should be isolated and the subsequent development of the metabolites in formulation of drugs.

Open Access Original Research Article

Creating Leathery Scent for Leathery Product and Perfume from Natural Materials

Le Huy Hai, Le Mai Xuan Truc, Nguyen Quoc Trung

South Asian Research Journal of Natural Products, Page 28-34

Aim and Objectives: The aim of this research is to create leathery scents from natural compounds to replace chemical synthesis for leathery products and perfume.

Materials and Methods: All the materials for making the leathery fragrance were taken from the project on Vietnam essential oils and related natural products. In our experiments, we used the volatile solvent is a solvent of alcohol 96%, and an odorless solvent diethyl phthalate (DEP).

Fragrance assessment by olfactory, the aroma is diluted with an odorless diethyl phthalate (DEP) solvent, followed by a special scent paper and the smell of the nose to assess the scent. The leathery fragrance was tested on leathery shoes 0.3%, leathery product 0.2%, perfume 5% by weight.

Results:  After the experiment, we have selected fragrance FLS for leathery shoes, FLP for leathery products and FP for perfume. The main aroma of leathery odor is made up of Woody notes, Animalic notes, Amber notes, Sweet notes, Fruity notes, Floral notes. The main note of leathery scent was Woody notes with Sassafras oil, Ambergris absolute, Cassie oil, Sytrax resin, Labdanum resin, Poumu oil, Sandalwood oil, Cedarwood oil, Vetiver oil, Orris absolute, Galbanum oil, Guaiacwood oil, Ionone, Methyl ionone.

Conclusions: We have created the leathery fragrances FLS for leathery shoes, FLP for leathery products, and FP for perfume from ingredients derived from natural origin.

Open Access Original Research Article

Literature Study on Opium Containing Drug Preparations Mentioned in “Vatika Prakaranaya”

R. M. D. Sasrika, W. M. S. S. K. Kulatunga

South Asian Research Journal of Natural Products, Page 49-55

Background: Vatika prakaranaya is one of the most important indigenous medical pharmacopoeia named “Vatika prakaranaya hewath Beheth guli kalka potha”. It was written by Dr. Illeperuma Arachchige Don Sadiris De Alwis Illeperuma in 1879 which contained different kinds of traditional drug preparations. It included various traditional formulae with its indications including opium containing drug preparations. Opium is considered as narcotic drug which acts on central nervous system. The most common active ingredients of opium are morphine, codeine and thibeine. In traditional drug preparation methods opium is taken after special purification.

Aims and Objectives

General Objective: To find out opium containing drug preparations mentioned in “Vatika Prakaranaya”.

Specific Objectives: To find out the indications mentioned in opium containing drug formulae.

To analyze the amount of opium in drug formulations.

Methods: The literary review was done by the principle investigator from Vatika Prakaranaya; from May to August 2017 in the library, Institute of Indigenous Medicine, University of Colombo, Sri Lanka. The observations were recorded accordingly and the data were analyzed by SPSS and presented in percentage.

Results:  120 opium contained formulae were identified. Out of these 120 preparations 70.83% were pills (Guli) and 4% were pastes (Kalka) and 30 formulae were found as fluid vehicles in medicine (Anupana). Majority of them were prescribed for diseases in GIT (92.2%) and CNS (87.8%) disorders. When considering the amount of opium in these formulae majority of them (61%) had less than 5% of opium.

Conclusion:  Most of the opium contained drug preparations mentioned in Vatika prakaranaya were used for GIT and CNS disorders and the amount of opium present in these formulae were less than 5%.

Open Access Original Research Article

Renal and Cardiovascular Effects of Prolonged intake of Monosodium Glutamate and Soybean on Wistar Rats

A. Bob-Chile Agada, N. Nwachukwu, C. O. Ibegbulem, A. C. Ene

South Asian Research Journal of Natural Products, Page 56-68

Background: This study investigated the biochemical effects of prolonged administration of monosodium glutamate (MSG) and soybeans in both male and female rats, using standard methods.

Methods: A total of two hundred and ten (210) Wistar rats (70 – 78g) were divided equally into three groups representing the various experimental durations (2, 4, and 6 months). Each of these groups was further sub-divided equally into fourteen (14) subgroups (7 groups for male rats and 7 groups for female rats). Out of the 7 groups for both the male and female rats, a group represented the control rats only fed commercial rat chow and water, whereas the rest were orally administered any of the 1000 mg/kg b.w (low dose), 2000 mg/kg b.w (medium dose), or 3000 mg/kg b.w (high dose) of aqueous extract of monosodium glutamate or soybean.

Results: No significant changes were observed in the urea levels after 2 and 4 months soybean respective administration to female and male rats, while H.D MSG significantly elevated the creatinine levels of male and female rats after 4 and 6 months administration. Administration of soybeans and MSG for 2 and 4 months had no significant effect on the bicarbonate and chloride levels. The HDL levels were significantly reduced while LDL, TC, and TG were significantly elevated after 6 months H.D administration of MSG and soybeans.

Conclusion: This study has shown that the prolonged high dose administration of monosodium glutamate produced diminishes the functional integrity of the kidney and the cardiovascular system regardless of gender.

Open Access Original Research Article

Stability and Antioxidant Activity of Natural Red Pigment by Pseudomonas stutzeri ZH-1

Qing-Ping Hu, Xia- Huang, Si-yu Wang

South Asian Research Journal of Natural Products, Page 94-102

Natural pigments are widely used in textiles, leather, food and other materials, due to they are non-toxic and easy to extract. In the present study, stability and antioxidant activity of a natural red pigment was investigated from Pseudomonas stutzeri ZH-1 which was first isolated and identified from the sludge of Fenhe River, Linfen, Shanxi Province. The results of stability tests showed the red pigment had a relative good stability at pH 5-12 and 30-90°C. The contents of pigments from P. stutzeri ZH-1 were all not significant differences (p>0.05) in a certain concentration of H2O2, Na2S2O8 and NaSO3 at 30 °C for 1h, respectively. In the metal ion solutions being tested for 2h, the pigments retained a residual rate above 80% except for Mg2+ and K+; Additional results of antioxidant activity assays displayed that the nature pigment had the strong scavenging activities against three free radicals including DPPH, ABTS and hydroxyl, and the highest scavenging rates at 0.5 g/L concentrations of pigments were up to 20.58%, 19.23% and 37.69%, respectively. Obviously, the above results suggest the red pigment produced by P. stutzeri ZH-1 which is a promising microbial resources provides a new strategy for the promotion and application of natural pigments.

Open Access Original Research Article

Analysis for Quality and Cholesterol Composition of Handcrafted Coconut, Soybean and Corn Oils

Alugbuo Stanley Udochukwu, Aaron Chinomso Friday, Akataobi Kelechi Uzoma, Ezekwe Ahamefula Sunday

South Asian Research Journal of Natural Products, Page 103-108

Handcrafted coconut, soybean and corn oils were analyzed for quality and cholesterol composition using standard methods. The observed moisture composition of the oils exceeded the 0.2% threshold for maintenance of quality shelf life. Corn oil displayed the highest degree of unsaturation followed by soybean oil. Coconut oil was below the specified standard for edible oil. The vitamin C content of the handcrafted oils followed the order corn oil (0.20 µg/100g) > soybean oil (0.10 µg/100g) > coconut oil (0.07 µg/100g). The observed cholesterol level of corn oil (7.5 mmol/dL) was the highest against the cholesterol of soybean oil (6.5 mmol/dL) and then followed by coconut oil (3.6 mmol/dL), which was the least in cholesterol content. The oil samples possessed those quality parameters that could project them as edible from of vegetable oils. However, effort should be made to lower cholesterol and moisture contents of the handcrafted oils. High cholesterol has been implicated against healthy living in humans while low moisture is known to promote the shelf life or delay spoilage of vegetable oils. This study has analyzed the quality and cholesterol composition of handcrafted coconut, soybean and corn oils.

Open Access Review Article

The Phytochemistry, Ethnomedicinal and Pharmacology Uses of Justicia carnea Lindl Used in Traditional medicine in Nigeria- A Review

C. E. Anarado, V. I. E. Ajiwe, C. J. O. Anarado, O. F. Obumselu, N. L. Umedum, S. E. Okafor

South Asian Research Journal of Natural Products, Page 85-93

Aim: Justicia carnea has been used in traditional medicine in Nigeria in the treatment and management of various diseases which include inflammation, cancer, malaria, sickle cell disease, gastrointestinal infections, anemia, HIV, diabetes, diarrhea, typhoid, liver diseases, hepatitis, cough, etc. This review is aimed at checking the relationship between the ethnomedicinal uses, the phytochemistry and pharmacological activities of Justicia carnea so as to unveil opportunities for future research.

Methods: A search for relevant information on Justicia carnea was performed on scientific databases (Scopus, Google Scholar, Pubmed, SciFinder, PubChem, Web of Science, and other web sources such as The Plant List, Kew Botanical Garden, and PROTA) and books.

Results: Extracts of the J. carnea have been reported to have been used in various traditional medicines in treating various diseases. Preliminary phytochemical analyses of extracts of the plant revealed the presence of various secondary metabolites such as flavonoids, tannins, saponins, alkaloids, phenols, terpenoids. The presence of these metabolites was responsible for the anti-anemic, anti-cancer, anti-diabetic, and antioxidant properties shown by the plant. The aqueous leaf extract of J. carnea having high phenolic and flavonoids contents was able to show antioxidant capacity and also inhibited α-amylase activity (IC50, 671.43±1.88 μg/mL). Also, both methanol and ethanol leaf extracts showed significant in vivo reduction in blood glucose levels. The ethanol leaf extract at 500 mg/kg and 1000 mg/kg showed a significant increase in Packed Cell Volume, Red blood cell (RBC), Hemoglobin (Hb) and white blood cell (WBC) counts.  Aqueous and ethanol leaf extracts of J. carnea have been reported to be relatively safe, though the methanol leaf extract was said to distort both the kidney and liver by showing infiltration of interstitial tissue with inflammatory cells and the portal vein were congested with blood cells, microvesicular steartosis and cytoplasm were replaced with fatty cells with the nuclei being centrally placed respectively.

Conclusion: J. carnea is a potential anti anemic, antioxidant, antidiabetic, hepatoprotective agent, which confirmed its uses in treating hepatitis, sickle cell disease, diabetes etc. Further research on isolation and determination of the activities of the metabolites in vivo and in vitro, establishing their mechanisms of action is necessary.