Open Access Original Research Article

Production of Ascorbic Acid by Acetobacter Species Isolated from Soil in Keffi, Nigeria

E. J. Bahago, M. D. Makut, I. K. Ekeleme, J. E. Owuna, I. H. Nkene, S. O. Obiekezie

South Asian Research Journal of Natural Products, Page 36-43

This investigation aimed at Production of Ascorbic acid by Acetobacter spp Isolated from soil in Keffi, was carried out using standard microbiological methods and identified standard techniques. The ability of the various isolates to produce Ascorbic acid were determined using starch solution Test and iodine crystal potassium iodide method while the quantitative determination of Ascorbic acid produced by each isolate was carried out and estimated using Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry (GC & MS). The results obtained showed that the different species of Acetobacter isolated from the study area included Acetobacter orientalis and Acetobacter orleanensis. The investigation further revealed that  Acetobacter orientalis produced the highest Ascorbic acid at temperature of 28oC with 12.34 mg/l and least at 39oC with 5.12 mg/l, while Acetobacter orleanensis also produced highest at  28oC with 8.04 mg/l and least at 39oC with 2.75 mg/l. Acetobacter orientalis yielded highest at 20% substrate concentration  with 19.51 mg/l and least at 5% substrate concentration  4.19 mg/l, while Acetobacter orleanensis  yield highest at substrate concentration of 25% with 10.98 mg/l and least at 5% substrate concentration 1.75 mg/l. Acetobacter orientalis produced highest ascorbic acid after 96 hours with 16.22 mg/l and lowest after 144 hours with 2.5 mg/l. Acetobacter orleanensis  also produced highest Ascorbic acid after 96hours with 10.11 mg/l and least after 144 hours with 1.02 mg/l. Highest ascorbic acid was produced at pH5.0 by Acetobacter orientalis with 16.68 mg/l and the least was at pH 4.0 with 3.21 mg/l while Acetobacter orleanensis  produced highest at pH 5.5 with 9.12mg/l, the lowest at pH4.0 with 3.12 mg/l. This study shows that Acetobacter species isolated from the soil in Keffi metropolis has the ability to produce Ascorbic acid.

Open Access Original Research Article

Characterization of Phenolic Compounds from Leaf Extract of Bidens Pilosa Linn. Var. Radiata

Merab Lilian. Ndiege, Fredrick Kengara, Geoffrey Kattam. Maiyoh

South Asian Research Journal of Natural Products, Page 44-58

Aim: To extract and characterize phenolic compounds in extract of Bidens pilosa Linn. Var. Radiata leaves.

Study Design: Experimental.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out in the Chemistry Laboratory, Department of chemistry and biochemistry, School of Sciences and Aerospace Studies, Moi University (Kenya) between January 2020 and March 2021.

Methodology: Extraction of Bidens pilosa leaves was done using the Soxhlet method, with dichloromethane/ methanol (1:1) as the solvents used for extraction. The analysis of phenolic compounds present in the B. pilosa extract employed a combination of spectroscopic and chromatographic techniques including Fourier Transform Infra-Red spectroscopy and gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS).

Results: Functional groups identified by FT-IR ranged from 995-665cm-1 related to C=C bending for alkenes (flavonoids); 1470–1150 cm−1 could be due to C-H stretching vibration for phenols; 1250-1020 cm-1 related to C-N stretching vibration for amines; 1275-1200 cm-1 due to C-O stretching vibration for vinyl ether. GC-MS/MS analysis afforded the identification and quantification of phenolic compounds, with 2,4-Di-tert-butyl phenol, 2,6-Bis (tert-butyl)phenol, 3,5-ditert-butyl phenol, and 2,5-bis(1,1-Dimethylethyl)phenol being the major components of the leaf extract.

Conclusion: The data derived from the characterization of B. Pilosa is a clear indication that the plant leaves are rich in bioactive compounds, verifying its claimed traditional use for treating various diseases This study recommends further studies on the identified bioactive compounds. It also recommends isolation of the identified compounds and testing for their pharmacological activities such as antibacterial, antifungal, and antiulcer.

Open Access Original Research Article

Citric Acid Production using Induced Mutant Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus awamori Isolated from Soil

I. K. Ekeleme, M. D. Makut, J. E. Owuna, I. H. Nkene, F. U. Alfa, S. O. Obiekezie

South Asian Research Journal of Natural Products, Page 59-67

This study aimed at citric acid production using mutation induced Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus awamori isolated from soil in Keffi, Nigeria. Soil samples were collected from different location in Keffi. Aspergillus species were isolated and identify using standard microbiological method. Citric acid was produced using a batch fermentation system. Citric acid yield highest by A. awamori A1 was at 30OC with 4.23 mg/l and A. awamori A2 produced highest citric acid 30 OC with 3.93 mg/l whereas A. niger F4 yield highest at 26 OC with 5.03 mg/ml and . A. niger F5 yield the highest at 26OC with 5.75 mg/l. the yield of citric acid at different fermentation duration showed that A. awamori A1 highest after 120hrs with the 5.20 mg/l and A. awawori A2 yield highest after 120hrs with 6.00 mg/l while A. niger F4 yielded 6.09 mg/ml after 144hrs and A. niger F5 produced highest after 144hrs with 6.80 mg/ml. by A. awamori A1 yield highest 5.88 mg/ml at pH of 4.0 and A. awamori A2 produced highest also at pH of 4.0 with 5.84mg/ml. A. niger F4 yields the highest citric acid at pH of 4.5 with 4.99 mg/ml and A. niger F5 yield highest at pH of 4.5 with  7.14mg/ml. A. awamori yields highest at substrate concentrations of 125mg/l with 8.97mg/ml, A. awamori A2 yielded 8.80mg/ml in 150 mg/l substrate concentration while A. niger F4 produced highest in substrate concentration of 175 mg/l with 9.17mg/ml and A. niger F5 yielded highest in substrate concentration of 175 mg/l with 10.02 mg/ml. Strain development will play important role in citric acid and developing strains of Aspergillus species.

Open Access Review Article

Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activity of Ferula Species' Essential Oils and Plant Extracts and their Application as the Natural Food Preservatives

Milad Daneshniya, Mohammad Hossein Maleki, Moein Ali Mohammadi, Kimia Ahangarian, Vahid Jalali Kondeskalaei, Hannaneh Alavi

South Asian Research Journal of Natural Products, Page 1-23

Ferula is a genus of perennial herbs in the Apiaceae family. Members of this genus are found mainly in the Mediterranean region and Central Asia, and they have a long history of utilization in traditional medicine for a variety of diseases. The species of this plant have been used for the ole-gum resin, plant extracts, and essential oils. Ferula species typically have a heavy fragrance due to the presence of essential oils or oleoresins in them. This review aimed to investigate the antibacterial, anti-fungal, and antioxidant activity of essential oils and plant extracts of ferula species and their potential to be used as natural food preservatives. Potential antioxidant and antimicrobial activity due to the specific chemical compounds have approved that the essential oils and extracts of different species of this plant can be utilized as natural food preservatives. Although an array of studies have approved these activities, there are still some vague aspects of their application for the extension of different food products' shelf life and replacement for synthetic (artificial) preservatives.

Open Access Review Article

A Mini Review on the Phytochemistry and Pharmacology of Aframomum alboviolaceum (Zingiberaceae)

Clément L. Inkoto, Koto-Te-Nyiwa Ngbolua, Jason T. Kilembe, Colette Masengo Ashande, Félicien L. Lukoki, Dorothée D. Tshilanda, Damien S-T. Tshibangu, Pius T. Mpiana

South Asian Research Journal of Natural Products, Page 24-35

Background and Aims: Given the importance of finding a new Improved Traditional Medicine (ITM) based on medicinal plants, we reviewed the traditional uses, phytochemical composition, biological properties and toxicity of Aframomum alboviolaceum (Zingiberaceae), a plant species widely used in traditional African medicine as nutraceutical.

Study Design: Multidisciplinary advanced bibliographic surveys and dissemination of the resulted knowledge.

Methodology: A non-exhaustive literature review for relevant articles and books published in the last twelve years was conducted in January 2021 on various electronic databases: Science Direct, Pubmed, Web of Science, Scopus, Google Scholar, POPLINE and System for Information on gray Literature in Europe. As search strategy, the scientific name of this plant was used as a keyword, with the terms phytochemistry and Pharmacology.

Results: In this literature review the results obtained show that A. alboviolaceum is rich in essential oils with a high concentration of β-pinene (51,6% This plant is also rich in macronutrients such as Carbohydrate, Lipids, Proteins, Ash, Magnesium, Phosphorus and Calcium. The presence of these compounds, such as essential oils, gives it anti-sickling, anti-oxidant, antimicrobial, anti-cancer and anti-malaria properties. Given the presence of the monoterpenes identified  in this species including  β-pinene (51,6%)  which has already proven its anti-inflammatory properties by inhibiting the expression of pro-inflammatory molecules (IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α), cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2) and activation of the nuclear transcription factors Kappa B (NF-KB), we anticipate that A. alboviolaceum could be effective against inflammatory as well.

Conclusion: To our knowledge anti-inflammatory activity of this plant species and its effects on cell division have not been tested. With this in mind, we would like to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity in vitro and in vivo of this plant species harvested in Democratic Republic of the Congo but also its genotoxic activity in our further studies.