Open Access Short communication

Phytochemical Analysis of Extracts of Ipomoea aquatica, Lasia spinosa, Pistia stratiotes and Monochoria vaginalis Growing in Polluted Water in Sri Lanka

Rajapaksha Gedara Weranga Dhanushka Band, Bulathwelage Anton Rohan Fernando, Thennakoon Mudiyanselage Aravinda Bandar Thennakoon, Athige Rajith Neloshan Silva

South Asian Research Journal of Natural Products, Page 11-17

Aims: This study involved four plants (roots of Ipomoea aquatica, Lasia spinosa, Pistia stratiotes and Monochoria vaginalis) for phytochemical analysis, which are growing in the polluted water in Sri Lanka.

Study Design:  Phytochemical analysis performed according to the standard methods.

Place and Duration of Study: Samples were collected from the wastewater disposal subways near the Colombo area, Sri Lanka in July 2016.

Methodology: The plant extracts were prepared by homogenization of plants in distilled water and subjected to phytochemical analysis.

Results: Results of Phytochemical analysis revealed that the four plant extracts contained flavonoids, proteins, and amino acids. Other than that, Monochoria vaginalis contains carbohydrates, phenols, diterpenes and glycosides. Lasia spinosa contained carbohydrates and diterpenes in addition to the above-mentioned phytochemicals.

Conclusion: It is concluded that the plants which are growing in polluted water may possess antimicrobial activity and flavonoids, carbohydrates, glycosides, phenols and diterpenes which may contribute to their survival in polluted water.

Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of Sandstone Maturity on Groundwater Resistivity in Geophysical Groundwater Exploration in Parts of Edo Central and Agbor, Delta State, Nigeria

Aigbedion Isaac, Salufu Samuel

South Asian Research Journal of Natural Products, Page 1-10

Several geoscientists have concluded that some terrains have no water by simply taken very high resistivity layers in the subsurface as a dry zone in areas with sandstone aquifer. However, this present work intends at ascertaining the reasons high resistivity sedimentary areas give high yield aquifer. Eighteen rock samples from aquifers that underlie the study area were obtained. Petrographic study was done on eleven sandstone samples, two igneous, three gneiss and two schist collected from the boreholes. The maturity indexes of the sandstones were computed. Vertical Electrical Sounding was conducted at each point to determine the subsurface resistivity and the wells were drilled to depths at which aquifers were encountered. The aquifer depths were correlated with the VES and petrographic results. The results of the petrographic showed that the sandstones are arenite and wacke sandstone aquifers. The VES result showed that arenite aquifers gave high resistivity, ranged from 5900Ωm to 15000Ωm signature while wacke gave low resistivity signature, ranged from, 37Ωm to 80Ωm and both gave good water yield at these   depths. This study has shown that arenites are second cycle sediments that have high  percentage of quartz mineral while wackes are rich in feldspar than arenites. Weathered feldspar isgood conductor of electricity in the presence of fresh water, which is the reason for their low resistivity value while quartz has high resistivity that makes arenite aquifers to give high  resistance.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Study of the Effect of Varnyayoga Powder and Varnyayoga Cream on Yuvana pidaka (Acne)

P. R. Waratenne

South Asian Research Journal of Natural Products, Page 18-27

Background: Yuvana pidaka or the Mukha dhushika is the disease mentioned in Ayurveda which can be compared with the acne vulgaris in modern medicine. The young age is most vulnerable period for the disease but sometimes it is a problem in other age also. Ayurveda mainly emphasized external treatment for its management but some internal remedies especially Shodana treatment are also prescribed.

Aims: The aim of this study was to study the effect of Vaynaya Yoga powder and Cream on Yuvana Pidaka. The target was the overcome the disease as well as the side effects like blackish spots.

Methodology: Total 60 diagnosed patients were randomly allocated for three groups and Group I treated with Varnyayoga powder and Group II treated with Varnayayoga cream and Group III treated with both drugs. Treatment period was two months and assessment was done by the self-prepared grading scale for 12 criteria.

Results: The results show that Group III (combine treatment) was the most effective (over all relief was 77.29%) than the other two groups. The Group I and II over all relief was 54.15% and 25.19% respectively. 

Conclusions: By concluding combine as well as local application is more effective than the internal/oral treatment for Yuvana Pidaka.

Open Access Original Research Article

Biobutanol Production from Pineapple Peels Waste using Single and Co-Culture of Clostridium acetobutylicum and Clostridium beijerinckii Isolated from Keffi Metropolis

J. O. Imaji, M. D. Makut, I. K. Ekeleme, J. Owuna, R. H. Abimiku

South Asian Research Journal of Natural Products, Page 28-35

Aims: This study investigated the production of biobutanol from pineapple peels using single and co-cultures of locally isolated strains of Clostridium acetobutylicum and Clostridium beijerinckii.

Methodology: Soil samples were collected from ten different areas in Keffi. Clostridium species were isolated using standard methods and identified using standard molecular techniques involving the use of 16S rRNA and compared with type strains.

Results: The yield of biobutanol in this study ranged from 1.2±0.20g/L to 5.6±0.43g/L in single culture fermentation broth and 5.8±0.37g/L to 6.5±0.51g/L in co-culture fermentation broth.

Conclusion: It was observed that in single culture and co-culture, the fermentation broth of Clostridium acetobutylicum (SAA1) produced the highest yield of biobutanol in comparism with the yield of other isolates.

Open Access Original Research Article

Bioassay Guided Fractionation, Phytochemicals and Toxicity Evaluation of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Leave Extracts

Y. Abdulmumin, T. M. Abdulumin, I. A. Muhammad, M. Murtala, M. M. Dalhatu, L. A. Amina, S. A. Bichi, S. I. Sarki

South Asian Research Journal of Natural Products, Page 36-43

Background: Medicinal plants have found a wide range of application in pharmacy, medicine, and toxicology, and are very valuable tool for their bioassay guided fractionation. About 70% of huge development efforts from medicinal plant centers are on the safety of such plants in laboratory or experimental animal as well human Leaves of E. camaldulensis are known to possess many biological and pharmacological effect for treatment of many diseases. and it has been reported to have antioxidants, cytotoxic effects, antimicrobial and anti-dermatophytes properties. This study is aimed to determine the phytochemical content and acute toxicity study of Eucalyptus camaldulensis leave extract using different solvent of varying polarity.

Methods: Bioassay Guided Fractionation of Aqueous Leave Extract of Eucalyptus camaldulensis were carried out and Sequentially fractionated using hexane, ethyl acetate and chloroform. The acute toxicity study LD50 (oral rats) was evaluated according to Muhammad [1] while the phytochemicals screening was conducted using the methods described by Brain and tuner [2].

Results. The percentage yield of the four solvent extract of Eucalyptus camaldulensis leaves extract showed that ethyl acetate extract has the highest yield followed by aqueous extract. While hexane and chloroform extract showed low yield when compared with the ethyl acetate and aqueous extract. The phytochemical screening of Eucalyptus camaldulensis aqueous, hexane, ethyl acetate and chloroform leave extracts shows the presence of tannins, saponins, Flavonoids, Cardiac Glycosides, Steroids, Terpenoids and Anthraquinones. However, saponins, flavonoids steroids and Terpenoids were absent in chloroform, hexane and ethyl acetate, hexane and aqueous extract respectively, while alkaloids were found to be absent in all the four solvent extracts. The acute lethal study of aqueous, hexane, ethyl acetate and chloroform extract of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Leaves were found to be greater than 5000 mg/kg body weight.

Conclusion and Recommendation: The finding showed that Eucalyptus camaldulensis leave extract possess some bioactive constituents of pharmacological important and all the extracts such as aqueous, hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate were found to be practically non-toxic to the experimental animals It is recommended that further studies should be explored for isolation of the active ingredient for drugs discovery.