Artemisia argyi essential oil is a volatile aromatic substance with antioxidant and antibacterial activities. Here, we investigated the composition, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of essential oil from A. argyi in different collecting stages. The results showed that the essential oil extracted from A. argyi collected on June 7 (Dragon Boat Festival) had the highest extraction rate of 0.88% in five different collection periods. According to GC-MS analysis, there are 29, 29, 31, 28 and 31 different compounds detected in the essential oil of A. argyi at different collection stages, among which there are 19 kinds of the same compounds, and the components with high content include 1,8-cineole, β-thujone, 4-p-menth-1-en-8-ol, caryophyllene, caryphylleneoxide, etc. Furthermore, the results of functional activity analysis showed that the essential oil extracted from A. argyi collected on the day of Dragon Boat Festival has higher antioxidant and antibacterial activities.
Carica papaya is one of the most valuable plants used for various purposes in medicinal field and ethnomedicine. The aim this study was to investigate the therapeutic potential of C. papaya leaf extract using cold maceration method with distilled water, methanol and petroleum-ether. Phytochemical screening of the extracts revealed the presence of the following: alkaloids, saponins flavonoids, steroids, cardiac glycosides and tannins. Antimicrobial activities of the extracts were determined by agar well diffusion method by measuring the diameters of zones of inhibition. In aqueous extract, Klebsiella pneumonia had the highest zone of inhibition (16±0.00 mm) followed by Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus at 14±0.00 mm and 12±0.5 mm respectively. In methanol extracts, E. coli. had the highest zone of inhibition (15±00 mm) followed by Staphylococcusaureus (12±0.00 mm) while K. pneumonia had no inhibition. With Petroleum-ether, Staphylococcusaureus had the highest zone of inhibition (22±0.00 mm) followed by E. coli (0.13±0.00 mm) while K. pneumonia had no inhibition. It was clear that C. papaya had antimicrobial activity but varied with organism and extraction solvent. Therefore, for development of drugs, different extraction solvent and bacteria must be used in order to develop effective and tailored made antimicrobials to curb the menace of antibiotics resistance.
Aims: This work aimed to investigate the phytochemical constituents of Cameroonian species of Solanum torvum Swartz and to carry out. Antioxidant, enzyme inhibition (urease and glucosidase) and antibacterial activities of methanol crude extract and isolated compounds.
Methodology: The stems of Solanum torvum were collected and extracted by maceration in methanol. The crude extract was subjected to repeated column chromatographic separation. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectral analysis of ESI-MS, 1D and 2D NMR.
The methanol crude extract and pure compounds were tested against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Salmonella typhi, Klebsiella pneumonia, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus faecalis, Micrococcus sp. and Saccharomyces cerevisiae using the method of disk diffusion. The radical scavenging (DPPH) and the enzyme inhibition (urease and glucosidase) were perfomed according to the standards methods
Results: One new compound neochlorogenin-6-O-β-D-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)-α-D-quinovopyranoside, together with eight known compounds including four steroidal derivatives, neochlorogenin-6-O-β-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→3)-β-D-quinovopyranoside, yamogenin-3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→6)-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, diosgenin, chlorogenin; three phytosterols stigmasterol, β-sitosterol, β-sitosterol-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside and one pentacyclic derivative, betullinic acid were isolated from the stems of Solanum torvum.. Diosgenin was isolated from S. torvum for the first time. All the tested compounds were found to be inactive while methanol crude extract showed moderate urease and significant glucosidase inhibition activities with IC50 = 61.2± 0.68 and 32.5± 0.87 µM respectively.
Conclusion: These results suggested that Solanum torvum might be used as an enzyme inhibition agent particularly for alpha glycosidase inhibition.
The experiment was conducted to determine the impact of feeding sweet potato meal to broilers. A total of two hundred and fifty (250) day old broilers of Abore acres strain were used for the trial. The birds were randomly divided in to 25 groups of 10 chicks each. Five groups were randomly allocated to five dietary treatments as replicates. The treatments consisted of diet 1 (100% maize/ 0% sweet potato), diet 2 (75% maize/ 25% sweet potato), diet 3 (50% maize/ 50% sweet potato), diet 4 (25% maize/ 75% sweet potato) and diet 5 (0% maize/ 100% sweet potato). Data on feed intake, water intake, mortality, feed conversion ratio and body weight gain were recorded. The proximate analysis of the feed samples and sweet potato meal were carried out. The data collected at both starter and finisher were subjected to Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) using SAS statistical package. The results recorded at both starter and finisher stages indicated that, there was significant difference (P<0.05) on body weight gain and feed conversion ratio while there was no significant difference (P>0.05) on feed intake, water intake and mortality.. It could be concluded from the results of the study that, control diet and 50% level of inclusion are better for broiler starters and finishers respectively.
The aim of this work was to determine the anti-diabetic potential of leaves of selected medicinal plants namely; Carica papaya (paw-paw), Psidium guajava (guava) and Anacardium occidentale (cashew). Leaves obtained from each of the aforementioned plants were dried and processed into fine powder which was subsequently extracted with methanol. Phytochemicals present in extracts were quantitatively determined. Thirty (30) adult male albino rats were divided into six groups of five rats each. Group I was the non-diabetic (normal) control, Group II was the untreated (diabetic) control, Groups III-V were separately administered with 200mg/kg b.w of the methanol leaf extract of Carica papaya (paw-paw),Psidium guajava (guava) and Anacardium occidentale (cashew), while Group VI was administered with 2.5 mg/kg glibenclamide. Results on the phytochemical analysis on the extracts showed that saponins was significantly higher (36.89±1.06) in Psidium guajava (guava) leaf extract than pawpaw and cashew leaves extracts (25.55±2.36%) and (27.03±1.48%) respectively. Antidiabetic studies on the methanol leaf extract of the plants, showed that oral administration of 200mg/kg b.w of Psidium guajava (guava) leafextract significantly reduced (121.33±5.78 mg/dl) blood glucose to a level which however was not significantly different from the reduction (121.67±4.4 mg/dl) achieved with 200 mg/kg b.w of Anacardium occidentale (cashew) andCarica papaya (paw-paw) leaves extract. In conclusion, this study has shown that Psidium guajava (guava), Anacardium occidentale (cashew) and Carica papaya (paw-paw) leaves are all potent anti-diabetic options.