Open Access Short Research Article

Phytochemical Analysis of Different Extracts of Nagaradi panchakaya

P. R. Waratenne, A. P. A. Jayasiri, I. M. Manuha, P. M. H. K. Maduratharangi

South Asian Research Journal of Natural Products, Page 41-49

Nagaradipanchakaya is a very familiar decoction prescribed for respiratory tract diseases available in the Ayurveda Pharmacopoeia. It contains five herbal ingredients; i.e. Zingiber officinale, Cedrus deodara, Coriandrum sativum, Solanum indica and Solanum xanthocarpum.

Aims: The study was conducted to analyze the phytochemicals present in sequential extracts of Nagaradipanchakaya using hexane, ethyl acetate and ethanol solvents in succession.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted in the unit of Dravyaguna Vignana, Department of Ayurveda, Institute of Indigenous Medicine, University of Colombo, Rajagiriya, Sri Lanka, between October to December 2019.

Methodology: Authentication of the ingredients of Nagaradipanchakaya was done by the experts in the Unit of Ayurveda Pharmacology in the Institute of Indigenous Medicine, University of Colombo. The extracts of dried powder of the ingredients obtained using Hexane, Ethyl acetate and Ethanol in succession were tested along with blank (water) for the presence of phytochemicals. Chemical analysis carried out for (a) qualitative analysis of phytochemical constituents (b) quantitative analysis of alkaloids, total phenol, flavonoid and Saponin contents.

Results: The results suggested that the presence of Alkaloids, Tannin and Phenolic compounds, Terpenoids & steroids, Flavonoids, Cardiac Glycosides, Saponins, Carbohydrates, Amino acids, Anthraquinone glycosides, Resins having selective solubility in selected solvents of varying polarities used in succession. The selective solubility of the phytochemicals is probably responsible in conferring a wide spectrum of biological activities attributed to the decoction of Nagaradi Panchakaya. In addition, the present study suggests that the sequential extractions using solvents of varying polarities would maximize the exploitation of the diverse bioactive compounds. Further considerable amount of Alkaloids (3.52 ± 0.15%), phenolic compounds (47.03±0.56 mg gallic acid equivalents), flavonoids (15.83±0.16 mg quercetin equivalents/g and Saponin (4.1±0.4%) were present in this poly-herbal formula.

Conclusion: The present study revealed the presence of phytochemicals such as alkaloids, tannin, phenolic compounds, terpenoids & steroids flavonoids, tannins and saponins in this Nagaradipanchakaya.

Open Access Original Research Article

Investigation of β-Lactamase Enzyme Inhibitory, Anti-Bacterial and Anti-Fungal Bio-Activities of Dillenia retusa Thumb: An Endemic Medicinal Plant to Sri Lanka

Hettiarachchige Dona Sachindra Melshandi, Jayanetti Koralalage Ramani Radhika Samarasekera, Shiroma Mangalika Handunnetti, Ovitigala Vithanage Don Sisira Jagathpri Weerasena, Rukesh Maharjan, Muhammad Iqbal Choudhary

South Asian Research Journal of Natural Products, Page 1-12

Dillenia retusa (Dilleniacea) is a medicinal plant endemic to Sri Lanka with an immense bioactive potential. To date, no studies are reported on anti-microbial potential of this plant. The present study investigates anti-bacterial, b-lactamase enzyme inhibitory and anti-fungal bio-activities of the ethanol extracts of D. retusa.

The leaves (DRL), fruits (DRF) and bark (DRB) of D. retusa were extracted with ethanol using cold extraction technique. Anti-bacterial properties of the extracts were investigated against five sensitive bacterial strains namely, Shigella flexneri (ATCC®12022), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC® 10145), Escherichia coli (ATCC® 25922), Salmonella typhi (ATCC® 14028), Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC® 6538) and four resistant bacterial strains namely, Klebsiella pneumoniae (MDR ATCC® 700603), Escherichia coli (MDR ATCC® 35218), Salmonella enterica (MDR ATCC® 700408) and Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC® MDR MRSA 252) using alamar blue micro-plate based assay. Anti-b-lactamase activity of the extracts were determined using b-lactamase enzyme inhibitory assay. Anti-fungal activity of the extracts was determined against five sensitive fungal strains namely, Candida albicans (ATCC® 14053), Candida glabrata (ATCC® 2001), Aspergillus niger (ATCC® 1015), Microsporum canis (ATCC® 10214) and Trichophyton rubrum (ATCC ®MYA-4438)) using agar-tube dilution method. Further, polyphenols and flavonoid contents of the extracts were determined. The bio-activities were statistically analyzed at p<0.05.

The extracts showed anti-bacterial activity against sensitive bacterial strains within the MIC range of 1.8-2.8 mg/mL and MBC range of 3-4.8 mg/mL and were found to be bactericidal. The extract of DRL showed the highest anti-b-lactamase activity (IC50: 226.25 ± 10.53 µg/mL) in a dose-dependent manner. The antifungal activity of the extracts was detected within the range of 1.6-3.2 mg/mL and the highest anti-fungal activity was observed for DRB against C. albicans which may be attributed to the high polyphenol content of DRB.

The extracts were identified as novel potential sources of antimicrobial compounds which may impart even higher antimicrobial activities upon bio-activity guided fractionation and purification of extracts.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Evaluation of Mineral and Vitamin Composition of Fermented Wet and Dried Maize Porridge (Akamu)

Rizwan A. Ansari, Karimah Mohammed Rabiu, Ewa Ogbonnaya, Oladunni O. Otanwa

South Asian Research Journal of Natural Products, Page 13-17

The aim of this study was to comparatively evaluate the nutrient composition of Wet and Dry Pap (akamu) Samples (WPS and DPS). 2 kg of white maize grains was steeped in 1000 ml of clean water for 3 days at room temperature (30±2°C). The water used was drained off and the wet grains were washed thoroughly with clean water before milling after which the resulting paste was mixed with 1000 ml of clean water. The slurry of the mixture was placed in a muslin cloth and was filtered. The filtrate was allowed to stand for 24 hours after which the supernatant was decanted. The product collected which is the pap (akamu) was placed inside muslin cloth and left to stand for 12 hours to facilitate draining. 0.5 Kg of the freshly prepared pap (akamu) was sun dried in a solar tent drier for 12 hours at 55±3°C to produce the Dry Pap Sample (DPS). Minerals, proximate and vitamin compositions of the samples were evaluated using standard methods. Analysis on the samples revealed that the amount of minerals was significantly higher in WPS Ca (63.34±0.36 mg/100 g), Mg (53.46±0.36 mg/100 g), K (43.05±0.05 mg/100 g), and Na (30.50±0.06 mg/100 g) than in DPS Ca (51.62±0.08 mg/100 g), Mg (29.76±0.42 mg/100 g), K (26.38±1.37 mg/100 g), Na (25.43±0.14 mg/100 g). However, similar evaluation to ascertain the amount of vitamins in the samples showed that the amount of vitamins B1, B2, B3 and B6 was significantly (P<0.05) higher in WPS B1 (1.49±0.42 mg/100 g), B2 (5.38±0.42 mg/100 g) B3 (1.15±0.03 mg/100 g) and B6 (5.98±0.23 mg/100 g) than in DPS B1 (0.9±0.11 mg/100 g), B2 (5.33±0.46 mg/100 g), B3 (1.83±0.02 mg/100 g) and B6 (4.17±0.81 mg/100 g). Proximate analysis on the samples revealed that moisture, protein, fat, ash, fibre content was significantly (P<0.05) higher in WPS than in DPS. However, carbohydrate content was significantly (P<0.05) higher in DPS (97.3±0.12 mg/100 g) than in WPS (81.4±0.16 mg/100 g). From this study, it can be deduced that drying to produce powdered pap results to significant nutrient loss. However being the only means by which the resource poor caregivers can boost the shelf-life this very important food product, supplementation with affordable and locally available nutrient dense sources is strongly advised.

Open Access Original Research Article

Granule Morphology and Physicochemical Properties of Flours of Three Yams Species: Colocasia esculenta, Xanthosoma sagittifolium and Plectranthus rotundifolius

H. A. C. O. Hettiarachchi, V. P. N. Prasadi, A. M. M. U. Adikari, K. D. P. P. Gunathilake

South Asian Research Journal of Natural Products, Page 18-30

Aims: Colocasia esculenta (Gahala), Xanthosoma sagittifolium (Kiriala) and Plectranthus rotundifolius (Innala) are three underutilized yam varieties in Sri Lanka, which have not been exploited sufficiently for various aspects in the food industry. Therefore, the research was conducted to evaluate the granule morphology, physicochemical and functional properties of flours obtained from three yams.

Study Design:  Complete Randomized Design.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Food Science and Technology, Faculty of Livestock, Fisheries and Nutrition, Wayamba University of Sri Lanka, Makandura, Gonawila, (NWP), Sri Lanka between April 2016 and August 2016.

Methodology: Granule morphology, proximate composition, swelling power (SP), solubility index (SI), least gelation concentration (LGC), water holding capacity (WHC) and oil holding capacities (OHC), viscosity, emulsifying capacity and emulsion stability, foaming capacity and foam stability (FS) of flour samples (≤0.250 mm) were determined. Gelatinization characteristics were evaluated using Brabender viscoamylograph.

Results: At 80°C, higher SI were observed compared with other temperatures used and were within the range of 16.85-22.21%. LGC of all flours were within the range of 5-7% (w/v) indicating that they can be utilized as gel-forming material in food products. Gelatinization temperatures (GT) for Colocasia esculenta, Xanthosoma sagittifolium, and Plectranthus rotundifolius flour the ranged between 65-84°C, 75-94.5°C, 72-86.25°C respectively. Colocasia esculenta flour showed the lowest GT (65-84°C) and which is more preferable over other flour types.

Conclusion: Hence it is perceptible that flours obtained from above yam species can be utilized in the food industry.

Open Access Original Research Article

Preliminary Assessment of the Antimicrobial Susceptibility Pattern of Some Halitosis-causing Oral Bacterial Isolates to Extracts of the Plant Garcinia kola

Chukwudi I. Nnamchi, Oluchi B. Mbah, Kenneth Ugwu

South Asian Research Journal of Natural Products, Page 31-40

The emergence of multidrug resistant microorganisms and other forms of multiple drug failures has increased the quest for alternatives to conventional medicines. Garcinia kola is considered one of the most promising such alternatives. In order to test its efficacy against some oral infections, a total of seven oral bacterial isolates from different human samples and two standard cultures serving as control, were tested for their susceptibility to cold water, hot water, hexane and ethanol extracts of fruits of Garcinia kola whose phytochemical properties had been determined, using the agar well diffusion method. Results obtained showed that the ethanol extract was active against 80% of the test organisms, followed by cold water extract, which was active against 45.5% of the organisms. Extracts from hot water and hexane gave the least activities which were 18.8% and 15.5% respectively against the isolates. The minimum active concentrations of the extracts were different for the different extracts and microorganisms, although the ethanolic extract again gave the best results. The mainly positive results obtained during the study correlates well with the presence of several phytochemicals including steroids, flavonoids, saponins that have been reported in Garcinia kola. These findings partly explain the many positive health claims that have been attributed to the plant by many of its users in many parts of Nigeria and Africa.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Leaf Extracts of Swietenia mahagoni L. on Some Selected Crops

R. S. N. Rima, M. S. Rahman, M. M. Ali, M. S. Bari

South Asian Research Journal of Natural Products, Page 50-57

A study was conducted to investigate the effect of leaf extracts of Swietenia mahagoni L. on three selected crops. There were three test crops namely chilli, (Capcicum annum), brinjal (Solanum melangona) and okra (Abelomoschus esculentas) and four levels of mahagoni leaf extracts viz., distilled or tap water (conrol), 1%, 2% and 3% leaf extracts in laboratory condition and same concentration of leaf extracts in pot condition. The design was completely randomized design (CRD) in the laboratory and completely randomized design (CRD) in the pot with three replications. The results of laboratory experiment showed that the leaf extracts had inhibitory effects to all the tested crop and inhibition rate increased with the increase of levels. It was also recorded that inhibition rate of mahagoni leaf extracts in differed with different species. In case of pot experiment, leaf extracts of mahagoni also inhibited the germination of three tested crops. Morphological parameters like plant height (cm) showed significantly better growth in control over leaf extracts in all the tested crops at the both condition. Similar results were recorded for biomass allocation like total dry weight (g). From the overall results it can be concluded that allelopathic effect of leaf extracts of Mahagoni on the agricultural crops inhibited more in laboratory compared to field pot condition.