Current research work comprises Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) study of two members of Portulaca Family namely, Portulaca pilosa & Portulaca quadrifida Linn. Portulaca pilosa is well known ornamental plant whereas Portulaca quadrifida Linn. is a weed. Both are known for their herbal importance and were grown in March last year in self-built herbal garden. In June last year, twigs of both herbs were plucked and kept under shade for drying. After one month, dry twigs were ground to fine powder and then analyzed using FTIR technique. Functional groups of phytochemicals were identified through FTIR spectral lines. Appropriate correlations of absorption peaks to medicinal compounds have been discussed. As a result, both herbs are found to be rich source of bioactive compounds like alkaloids, flavonoids, fatty acids, tannins, triterpenoids, amino acids and saponins. In conclusion of current study, importance of herbal plants for development of medicines is also highlighted.
This study evaluates in vitro antiplasmodial and cytotoxicity activity of an ornamental plant commonly employed in Northern part of Nigeria for curing malaria infection. Fresh mature leaves of Erythrina senegalensis were collected, air dried, ground, percolated in ethanol for two weeks and evaporated to dryness at room temperature. The dried ethanol crude extract was fractionated with pet-ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol in order of increasing polarity. These were screened for phytochemicals, in vitro antiplasmodial and cytotoxicity test using standard procedures. The results of the phytoconstituents revealed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids and terpenoids which could be responsible for the medicinal properties of the extract. Ethanol crude extract, pet-ether and ethyl acetate fractions were discovered to be non-cytotoxic exhibiting LC50 > 1000 µg/ml respectively. Only methanol fraction showed slight toxicity with LC50 value of 630 µg/ml. The highest activity of the extract and its fractions against Artemia salina larvae was recorded at 1000 µg/ml dose whereas lowest larvicidal activities and lethalities occurred at 10 µg/ml dose. The ethanol extract and its fractions were significantly active against Plasmodium falciparum strain (K1) with percentage elimination of the parasites were in the range of 77% - 83% at 5000 µg/ml. Ethyl acetate (71%) and methanol fraction (71%) were found to be the most active fractions at the lowest concentration of 625 µg/ml. This finding justifies the usage of the plant in traditional medicine by traditional healers and local populace against malaria disease. The observed value for cytotoxicity assay of LC50>1000 µg/ml recorded for the ethanolic extract suggested that oral intake of the extract could be deemed safe and would not be lethal at low/moderate dose as lethality is directly proportional to dosage and oral consumption of the extract as over dosage could lead to lethality and subsequently, mortality over a long period of time due to bioaccumulation. The isolation of antiplasmodial compounds from the leaves of the plant is necessary as it could be a potential candidate for novel antimalarial drugs. Continuous utilization of the leaves as antimalarial and the wide range of its safety at low and moderate dosages further supports its use among the less privileged and vulnerable people in malaria endemic areas in lieu of existing expensive modern antimalarial drugs.
Eggplant (Solanum melongena) is one of the most common vegetables consumed all around the world. It is a very rich source of polyphenol compounds endowed with antioxidant activity. The current study evaluated the antioxidant potential of seven different varieties of eggplant carried out both in raw and processed form in terms of total phenolic content, total flavonoid content and DPPH radical scavenging assay. The phenolic and flavonoid content were quantified by aluminum chloride and Folin-Ciocalteu methods, respectively. Processed extract from yellow eggplant showed more antioxidant activity (52.35 ± 0.75%), while raw extract from purple stripe eggplant showed more antioxidant activity than the other samples (83.00 ± 0.20%). It was also observed that values for all samples carried out for total phenolic and total flavonoid content both raw and processed extract was low which ranges from (7.65 ± 0.02 µg/g to 7.89 ± 0.04 µg/g) for raw extract and (7.60 ± 0.08 µg/g to 7.82 ± 0.24 µg/g) for processed extract in total phenolics and ( 62.09 ± 0.08 µg/g to 62.43 ± 0.05 µg/g) for raw extract and (62.43 ± 0.05µg/g to 62.56 ± 0.05 µg/g) for processed extract in total flavonoid, compared to values for DPPH, which ranges from (25.07 ± 0.47% to 83.00 ± 0.20%) for raw extract and (36.60 ± 0.19% to 57.03 ± 0.50%) for processed extract.
Environmental contamination by heavy metals as a result of unregulated disposal of wastes is a serious challenge all over the world. Early detection and remediation of heavy metals in soil and plants will ameliorate serious potential threats posed to human health and other components of the ecosystem. This study was conducted to evaluate the physicochemical characteristics and selected heavy metal concentration in soils and edible plant at three different refuse dumpsites in Nkwerre Local Government Area of Imo State and compared with the permissible limits specified by WHO/FAO standards. Soil samples were collected from a depth of 0 – 20 cm using a soil auger while plant samples were collected from same source as the soil. Samples were collected from an area with no history of dumpsites which served as control. Standard analytical procedures were used for physicochemical parameters while Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS) was used for the heavy metals analysis. Results showed significant (p>0.05) higher changes in the soil physicochemical properties relative to the control. Mean heavy metal concentration in soil from site A were: 239.158±26.57 (Fe); 0.080±0.008 (Cd); 0.012±0.001 (Ni); 1.040±0.12 (Mn); 0.899±0.10 (Pb); and 14.123±1.57 (Zn); site B were: 24.854±2.76 (Fe); 0.069±0.008 (Cd); 0.056±0.006 (Ni); 1.163±0.13 (Mn); 0.133±0.02 (Pb); and 16.004±1.78 (Zn) while that of site C were: 15.536±1.73 (Fe); 0.069±0.09 (Cd); 0.333±0.04 (Mn); 0.767±0.09 (Pb); 3.097±0.34 (Zn). The values of all the metals analyzed for samples from dumpsites were higher than those from the control but were below values recommended by the WHO/FAO except for Fe and Zn in some sites. Talinum triangulare showed bioaccumulation factor (BF) and transfer factor (TF) greater than 1 for Fe, Cd, Mn, Pb, and Zn indicating that the plant can be effectively used for phytoremediation. A strong positive correlation was observed for all the metals studied, Fe (
The pot culture experiment was conducted to study the effect of foliar application of boron through boric acid @ 0.2, 0.4, 0.6 and 0.8 percent and soil application of borax @ 2.5 kgha-1 and 5.0 kg ha-1 on growth and yield of French bean Cv. Phule Suyash. In Entisol at Division of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, College of Agriculture, Pune, during Rabi 2017-2018. The experimental soil was deficient in boron (0.35 mg kg-1). There were eight treatments replicated thrice in a completely randomized design. Application of GRDF (50:110:110 N, P2O5, K2O kg ha-1) along with two foliar sprays of boric acid @ 0.6 per cent at 25 and 55 DAS recorded significantly higher uptake of nitrogen (3.58 g pot-1), phosphorus (0.23 g pot-1), K (1.84 g pot-1) and Boron (39.91 mg pot-1). Significantly higher protein (22.65%) content in french bean was recorded with the application of GRDF along with soil application of borax @ 5 kg ha-1 at the time of sowing and it was closely followed by GRDF + Two foliar sprays of boric acid each @ 0.6 per cent at 25 and 55 DAS (22.50%).