Open Access Minireview Article

Working with Bioactive Substances from Medicinal Plants in Animals

Idris Zubairu Sadiq, Fatima Sadiq Abubakar, Hassan Aliyu Hassan, Maryam Ibrahim

South Asian Research Journal of Natural Products, Page 27-37

Background: Working with bioactive substances from the medicinal plant requires various steps from plant extract preparation to the calculation for scientific evaluation and safe medicinal plant extract administration. The paper aims to discuss procedures involve in evaluating bioactive compounds from medicinal plants.

Methodology: Review of relevant literature.

Results: We have described the preparation of plant extract, toxicological methods of evaluating bioactive substances, vehicles for biological research, evaluating analgesic, neuropharmacological and anti-inflammatory activities from medicinal plants.

Conclusion: Medicinal plants are potent stores of bioactive compounds that needed to be carefully extracted, toxicologically and preliminarily evaluated in animals for new drug development.

Open Access Original Research Article

Glutathione S-Transferase and β-Glucuronidase Enzymes Inhibitory and Cytotoxic Activities of Ethanolic and Methanolic Extracts of Sri Lankan Finger Millet (Eleusine coracana (L.) Gaertn.) Varieties

Sooriya Arachchige Sachini Jayawardana, Jayanetti Koralalage Ramani Radhika Samarasekera, Gardhi Hettiarachchige Chamari Madhu Hettiarachchi, Mahavidanage Jaanaki Gooneratne, Muhammad Iqbal Choudhary, Rehan Imad, Ambreen Naz

South Asian Research Journal of Natural Products, Page 1-9

Background: The adverse side effects of cancer management and the increasing rate of mortality associated with cancers create a necessity to discover alternative strategies in cancer management and new anticancer agents especially derived from plant materials.

Aims: This study was focused on evaluating glutathione S-transferase and β-glucuronidase enzymes inhibitory activities and cytotoxicities against human lung and breast cancer cell lines of ethanolic and methanolic extracts of Ravi, Rawana and Oshadha finger millet varieties in view of the anticancer potential. 

Methodology: Flours of whole grains of the finger millet varieties were extracted with ethanol and methanol separately. Glutathione S-transferase and β-glucuronidase enzymes inhibitory activities of the extracts were evaluated using standard methods. Cytotoxic effects on brine shrimps were evaluated as a preliminary assessment of toxicity. Growth inhibitory properties were studied on human lung and breast cancer cell lines and mouse embryo normal cell line using the MTT assay.

Results: The findings revealed dose-dependent glutathione S-transferase and β-glucuronidase enzymes inhibitory activities of ethanolic and methanolic extracts of Ravi, Rawana and Oshadha finger millet varieties. All extracts were non-cytotoxic upon normal cells and showed growth inhibitory properties upon human breast cancer cells. Methanolic extract of Oshadha showed the highest glutathione S-transferase (IC50 value: 236.18 µg/mL) and β-glucuronidase (IC50 value: 125.31 µg/mL) inhibitory activities and highest cytotoxicity upon human breast cancer cells. However, all extracts did not qualify as promising sources of cytotoxic agents against human lung cancer cells at the tested concentrations.

Conclusion: The findings of the present study suggested the potential of ethanolic and methanolic extracts of Ravi, Rawana and Oshadha finger millet varieties to enhance the efficacy of chemotherapy and to prevent and manage liver, colon and breast cancers. The specific compounds which are responsible for each activity will be studied in future.

Open Access Original Research Article

Determination of Nutritional, Health and Medical Value of Adansonia digitata Leaves in Nigeria

H. A. Aliyu, A. M. Danjuma, K. Abubakar

South Asian Research Journal of Natural Products, Page 10-15

African Baobab (Adansonia digitata L., Malvaceae) is an important indigenous food tree species for food security, nutrition, income generation and medicine for rural people in Africa. This research was aimed to examine medicinal and nutritional value of Adansonia digitata’s leaves (Baobab). Baobab leaves were grinded and transferred into dilute ethanol solution and allowed to soak for 10 minutes. The extract was collected using Whitman No 1 filter paper under aseptic condition. The proximate analysis of Adansonia digitata (Baobab) leaves revealed the presence of ash, moisture, crude fiber and crude protein contents all present in the extract, in 1.94%, 2.5%, 0.81% and 8.0% respectively. The study proves that baobab leaves provide nutrient that are required by the human body when consumed and that the leaves are a form of herbal medicine that has the potential of curing several diseases.

Open Access Original Research Article

Isolation and Characterization of Arabinoxylan from Leaves of Neolitsea cassia (L) Kosterm and Evaluation of Its Physicochemical and Functional Properties

W. S. Jeewanthi, K. D. P. P. Gunathilake

South Asian Research Journal of Natural Products, Page 16-26

Aims: Arabinoxylan is a complex non-starchy polysaccharide classified under dietary fiber group which mainly contains the cell wall of the cereals. In the food industry, commercially available arabinoxylan is used as a gelling agent, thickener, stabilizer and emulsifier. Leaves of Neolitsea cassia, a native plant in Sri Lanka and gummy materials in its leaves used for the preparation of specific traditional sweet called “Asmi”. The study aimed to isolate arabinoxylan gum from leaves of Neolitsea cassia and evaluate the suitability of the isolated gum as a thickening agent.

Study Design: Complete randomized design.

Place and the Duration of the Study: Department of Food Science and Technology, Faculty of Livestock, Fisheries, & Nutrition, Wayamba University of Sri Lanka, Makandura, Gonawila (NWP), Sri Lanka between April 2917 and August 2017.

Methodology: Arabinoxylan was extracted from leaves of Neolitsea cassia and analysed for its proximate composition and evaluate functional, antioxidant properties and stabilizing properties.

Results: The extractable arabinoxylan content was 1.02% from the dried basis. To determine the suitability of the isolated gum as a thickening agent, the functional properties of the extracted arabinoxylan were evaluated. Water holding capacity, oil holding capacity and the solubility of the isolated arabinoxylan were 288.82±0.67% and 166.67±1.79% and 80.250±1.025% respectively.  Solution of the extract with 5% (w/v) gave 395.00±2.567cp viscosity.  Isolated arabinoxylan was shown to exhibit antioxidant activity and suggesting it can enhance antioxidant capacity in the food matrix.

Conclusion: Arabinoxylan gum can be extracted from leaves of Neolitsea cassia and it posses many physicochemical, functional and antioxidant properties to be used as an additive in food preparation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antibacterial Efficacy of the Methanol Extract of Fruits of Trewia nudiflora Linn. (Euphorbiaceae)

Arnaba Saha Chaity, Israt Jahan Khan Chowdhury, Sathi Rani Sarker, Md. Faruk Hasan, Md. Fazlul Haque

South Asian Research Journal of Natural Products, Page 38-43

Aims: Trewia nudiflora Linn.  (Euphorbiaceae) which is a soft wooded tropical dioecious tree is used as traditional medicinal tree in many countries. Hence, this study was designed to assess the antibacterial activity of fruit extract of Trewia nudiflora against twelve pathogenic bacteria.

Methodology: Twelve pathogenic bacterial strains already available in the lab were used in this study. The four of the collected bacteria were Gram positive viz. Staphylococcus gallinarum, S. sciuri, Streptococcus iniae and S. constellatus and remaining eight were Gram negative viz. Xanthomonas axonopodies, X. campestris, Edwardsiella anguillarum, Siccibacter colletis, Aeromonas cavernicala, A. diversa, Vibro rotiferianus and Enterobacter xiangfangensis. Antibacterial efficacy of the methanol extract of fruits of Trewia nudiflora was evaluated by disc diffusion test and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) test.

Results: The result of disc diffusion test showed the significant antibacterial efficacy as indicated by the generation of zone of inhibition ranging from 15-20 mm around the disc soaked with fruit extract (15 μl/disc) against tested bacteria. The largest zone of inhibition (20 mm) was produced against E. xiangfangensis, A. cavernicala and V. rotiferianus while the smallest zone (15 mm) was produced against X. axonopodies, X. campestris, S. iniae and S. constellatus. The MIC value for fruit extract of Trewia nudiflora varied with bacterial species ranging from 100-200 μg/ml.

Conclusion: Therefore, it can be concluded that methanol extracts of the fruits of Trewia nudiflora may be a good agent for further research to confirm its use as a natural antibacterial compound against pathogenic bacteria in economic animals and human.