Open Access Original Research Article

Phytochemical Screening and Microcidal Activity of the Ethanolic and Aqueous Extracts of Annona muricata against Some Pathogenic Bacteria

Andrew Emmanuel, Dimas Kubmarawa, Galo Yahaya Sara

South Asian Research Journal of Natural Products, Page 1-6

Objective: To investigate the phytochemical composition and evaluate the microbial activity of the ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Annano muricata against some pathogenic bacteria.

Methods: The leaf of Annano muricata from Annonaceae family which is used as herbal remedies for the cure of many ailments by natives in northern part of Nigeria, was collected in June, 2018 from the Professor’s Quarters of Modibbo Adama University of Technology (MAUTECH) Yola. The leaf was air dried, pulverized and extracted by simple overnight maceration technique and then analyzed. Aqueous extract of the aforementioned leaf was screened phytochemically for the determination of its chemical constituents which was then subjected to antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Proteus vulgari, Salmonella typhi and Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA).

Results: The result revealed the presence of alkaloid, tannin, flavonoid, volatile oil, triterpene, and saponin in the ethanolic extract of Annano muricata and tannin, flavonoid, alkaloid, triterpene, saponin in the aqueous extract of Annano muricata. The results of the antimicrobial activity carried out using disc diffusion method showed a zone of inhibition against tested organisms, with Escherichia coli being the most inhibited (27 mm) at concentration (1 mg/mL) with ethanolic extract followed by salmonella typhi (25 mm) at the same concentration with aqueous extract. At least concentration (0.125 mg/mL), almost all the organisms showed a zone of inhibition (6 mm) with the exception of Salmonella typhi (9 mm) with the aqueous extract and Proteus vulgari (9 mm) with the ethanolic extract of Annano muricata.

Conclusion: This study conclusively demonstrate that Annona muricata is a better source of various phytochemicals like: tannin, alkaloid, saponin, flavonoid, triterpenoid, phenol and also justify the use of the plant as bactericidal agent for the treatment of so many diseases. 

Open Access Original Research Article

Modulation of Inflammatory and Pain Pathways in Trigeminal Ganglion Neurons and Glial Cells by Plant Extracts

Yanli Fan, Hunter Sheckley, Lauren Cornelison, Sara Woodman, Paul L. Durham

South Asian Research Journal of Natural Products, Page 1-14

Aims: To evaluate the modulatory effect of plant extracts on the expression of mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase-1 (MKP-1) and the protein kinases P-ERK and P-p38 in primary cultures of trigeminal ganglion from Sprague Dawley rats.

Study Design: In vitro analysis of methanol extracts on proteins implicated in inflammation and pain signaling.

Place and Duration of Study:  Center for Biomedical and Life Sciences, Missouri State University, between September 2017 and December 2018.

Methodology:  Methanol extracts were prepared from L. barbarum, S. canadensis, R. copallinum, and V. missurica, while an aqueous extract was prepared from V. californica. Primary cultures of rat trigeminal ganglion cells were utilized to investigate cellular changes mediated by the extracts on basal levels of MKP-1 and sorbitol-stimulated expression of the signaling proteins P-ERK and P-p38 using immunocytochemistry and fluorescent microscopy. Toxicity of each extract was evaluated by trypan blue exclusion and polyphenol levels were determined using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent and reported as gallic acid equivalents.

Results: Each extract tested caused a significant increase (P<.05) in basal levels of MKP-1 in trigeminal neurons and satellite glial cells when compared to untreated cells.  Sorbitol treatment of cultured cells stimulated expression of the inflammatory signaling proteins P-ERK and P-p38 in neurons and glial cells.  This stimulatory effect on ERK and p38 was significantly inhibited (P<.05) to near basal levels in both neurons and glia by overnight incubation with the extracts. None of the extracts caused cell toxicity and all extracts were determined to contain polyphenols, with V. californica and V. missurica exhibiting the highest levels.

Conclusions: The findings of this study provide evidence of a cellular mechanism by which plant extracts modulate trigeminal ganglion neurons and glial cells to inhibit inflammatory and pain signaling, and thus may be beneficial in managing orofacial pain conditions such as migraine and temporomandibular disorder.

Open Access Original Research Article

Morphological and Microscopic Studies of Aerial Parts of Ceylon Leadwort

Chhveen Bharti, Shivani Khagta, Komal Guleria, Vikrant Arya

South Asian Research Journal of Natural Products, Page 1-8

Plumbago zeylanica Linn. is a perennial shrub comes under the category of Angiosperm commonly known as Ceylon leadwort belonging to family Plumbaginaceae. In Indian System of Medicine i.e. Ayurveda, Plumbago (Chitrakmool) used as ingredient in various formulations as an effective appetizer, anti-inflammatory and aids in digestion by stimulating gastric secretions.    The present investigation deals with morphology and microscopy of aerial parts of Ceylon leadwort. Morphological study of glandular trichomes of fruits revealed the insect attracting property of plant. Microscopic study of leaves, fruit, stem and seed shows identifying characteristics which are helpful in further standardization of this plant.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antioxidant Potential and Anti-Sickling Activity of Different Organs of Curcuma longa: Correlation of the Antioxidant Capacity on Anti-Sickling Activity

Clément M. Mbadiko, Koto-te-Nyiwa Ngbolua, Pius T. Mpiana, Nadège K. Ngombe, Paulin M. Kapepula, Landry L. Kemfine, Gédéon N. Bongo, Théophile F. Mbemba

South Asian Research Journal of Natural Products, Page 1-16

Aims: The aim of this research was to evaluate comparatively the anti-sickling activity of aqueous and methanol extracts of different organs of C. longa, to determine the polyphenolic compounds and to evaluate the antioxidant potential of different parts of C. longa. Also, to establish a possible correlation between the antioxidant potential of the extracts on the anti-sickling activity.

Study Design: The study used an experimental design.  The antioxidant and anti-sickling activities of the aqueous and methanol extracts of different organs of C. longa were assessed along with their correlation.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out at the Laboratory of Natural Products, Faculty of Science and at Centre for the Study of Natural Products from Plant Origin (CESNOV), Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, both at University of Kinshasa in 2018.

Methodology: C. longa was planted in an experimental monoculture setting from where were collected different organs of this plant. After processing these parts, they were macerated in methanol and water respectively.  After filtration of the macerates, the filtrates were dried in the oven to obtain aqueous and methanol extracts which were used for biological analyses and the determination of polyphenolic compounds. This determination was performed using a spectrophotometer while the biological activities was performed using the ABTS, DPPH and Emmel tests respectively. Data were analyzed using GrapPad Prism 6.0 software for statistical analyzes and the determination of IC50.

Results: The findings showed that the polyphenolic compounds are not distributed in the same way in different organs of C. longa.  The extracts of different parts of C. longa do not all have a great antioxidant potential. However, the rhizome and root extracts showed a better anti-scavenging activity using ABTS method compared to other organs, while rhizome and leaf extracts showed better anti-scavenging activity using the DPPH test. The analyses carried out revealed: a positive correlation between (i) the total polyphenol contents and the anti-sickling activity of the studied extracts (r = 0.08328) and (ii) between the antioxidant activity using ABTS and DPPH tests along with the anti-sickling activity of different extracts (r = 0.1221, 0.4900 and 0.3114 respectively).

Conclusion: The tested extracts displayed good antioxidant and anti-sickling activities. Thus, different organs of C. longa are a source of natural antioxidants, which can be used to manage sickle cell disease. The effect of the antioxidant potential of the extracts tested on their anti-sickling activity was demonstrated. Nevertheless, in-depth studies are required in order to confirm this correlation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Untraditional Macaroni Formulated by Using Different Grain Meals and Their Mixtures

T. T. El-Sisy, Jehan B. Ali, A. Z. Hassona

South Asian Research Journal of Natural Products, Page 1-13

Aims: wheat, Barley and millet meals are having superior nutritional qualities and health benefits; they can be used for supplementation of macaroni. Its effect on physiochemical, rheological, color parameters, cooking quality, nutritional value and sensory evaluation.

Place and Duration of Study: Regional Center for Food and Feed, Agriculture Research Center, Giza, Egypt.

Methodology: Macaroni was prepared using wheat, barley, millet and composite meals mix (1), mix (2) and mix (3). Proximate chemical composition, rheological, color parameters, cooking quality and sensory evaluation were measured of wheat, barley, millet and composite meals macaroni.

Results: Results show that the level of millet replacement led to increasing the fat, ash and total fiber in the products. Β-glucan content in barely represented the superiority (3.90%) as compared with other samples. Substitution of wheat, barley and millet meals (mixed) macaroni have significantly increasing in the water absorption while they have significantly decreasing the cooking time. The highest value of water absorption (54.60 %) was found for wheat and the lowest value (35.0%) was obtained for millet. Color characteristics indicate that an increasing proportion of millet had signed negative effect on lightness and overall acceptability. While barley addition showed significant positive effect on lightness and overall acceptability. Sensory evaluation scores indicated non-significant difference among of the samples control and barley products were overall acceptance, then mixed (1) and millet was the lowest value of overall acceptance.

Conclusion: It can be concluded that the possibility of producing macaroni relatively higher in fiber and β-glucan without considerable of less density effects on its cooking quality and sensory evaluation and has many benefits for health of diabetes, high cholesterol and heart diseases patients.