Open Access Original Research Article

Phytochemicals from Alangium salvifolium (Alanginaceae): Structures, Molecular Docking and Its Antioxidant Enzymes Stimulating Activity

Mohammad Nadeem Khan, Jennifer Qureshi, Hena Kaushar, Nitesh Puspham

South Asian Research Journal of Natural Products, Page 1-14

Objectives: The current studies aimed at retrieve and draw the secondary metabolites structure of Alangium salvifoliuum and assessing its anti-oxidant enzymes stimulating activities. Methods: retrieve/draws of the compounds were carried out using chem.-sketch software. The 3-D structures of the Phytochemicals compounds were visualized based on the UV, NMR spectral data along with their mass-spectrometric analyses. The antioxidant and ROS elimination activity were evaluated in-silico using the ACD labs, PyRx, RASMOL, PYMOL, Aragslab and Discovery studio. Key findings: Phytochemicals structure drawing of A. salvifolium resulted in the structured and identification of five phytochemicals. The plant phytochemicals showed significant anti-oxidant enzymes activity enhancer and ROS eliminator through blocking to its ROS generation receptor. Conclusion: phytochemicals were drawing from  A. salvifolium. To the best of our knowledge, among these phytochemicals, were studied anti-oxidant enzymes metals binding domain to increase the ROS scavenging activity for the first time from in-silico study with molecular docking. Moreover, study of phytochemicals simulation was for the first time from this plant. The plant revealed promising increase the antioxidant activities virtual screening. This gives rationale to some of its pharmacological properties and suggests additional antioxidant effects, for as a scavenger as well as anti-oxidant enzyme stimulator, which have not been reported yet.

Open Access Original Research Article

Low-polarity Components Analysis and Antioxidant Activity Evaluation of Two Polyporaceae Mushrooms

Shi-Jun Yuan, Xin-Sheng He, Xiao-Hong Yuan, Yi Huang

South Asian Research Journal of Natural Products, Page 1-10

Aims: To evaluate the antioxidant and antibacterial activity of two kinds of Polyporaceae mushrooms (Coriolus versicolor and Trametes robiniophila), and investigate chemical constituents of their low polarity part.

Methodology: Extracting the powder of two mushrooms by soxhlet extraction method. The above extract was sequentially extracted with petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and distilled water. The antioxidant activity of different solvent extracts was investigated by the DPPH free radical clearance method. The antibacterial activity of four different solvent extracts was determined by drilling method. Finally, the petroleum ether extracts of the two mushrooms were methylation and analyzed by GC-MS.

Results: The antioxidant activity of each solvent extraction of the two mushrooms showed clear dose-effect relationship and the ethyl acetate and n-butanol extract from Coriolus versicolor had stronger antioxidant activity. However, there was no obvious antibacterial effect of these two mushrooms. The results of GC-MS analysis showed that there were 27 compounds in petroleum ether extraction part of the Coriolus versicolor, and 39 compounds in Trametes robiniophila. Methyl linoleate, 1,2-Benzenedicarboxylic acid, Methyl 2-hydroxy-tetracosanoate, Palmitic acid and Ergosta-14,22-dien-3-ol,(3β,5α,22E)had a high content in two mushrooms.

Conclusion: This study had clarified some of the chemical constituents of these two mushrooms and their antibacterial and antioxidant activity had been studied, it would provide some theoretical basis for their further development and utilization in anti-aging drugs and health food.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of the Antimicrobial Activity of Different Solvent Extracts of Ipomoea littoralis (Blume): A Naturally Growing Medicinal Plant in Sri Lanka

W. M. D. Thisera, R. M. P. S. Thilakarathne, A. G. K. Neranja, K. D. K. P. Kumari

South Asian Research Journal of Natural Products, Page 1-9

Aims: The emergence of drug-resistant microbial pathogens has become a global health burden. Hence there is a timely need to discover novel anti-microbial agents. The aim of the current study was evaluate the anti-microbial potential of different extracts of Ipomoea littoralis against some pathogens causing gastro-intestinal tract infections. 

Study Design: Experimental study. 

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Basic Sciences at Faculty of Allied Health Sciences and Research Laboratory at Faculty of Medicine, General Sir John Kotelawala Defence University, Ratmalana, Sri Lanka, between July 2018 and November 2018. 

Methodology: The aqueous, methanol, acetone and hexane extracts were prepared with the leaves, roots and stem of the plant Ipomoea littoralis separately. The agar well diffusion method and broth dilution method were applied in order to screen the anti -microbial activity of each test extract against the Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica, Shigella dysenteriae, Candida albicans and Staphylococcus aureus. Statistical comparisons were made using Duncan's new multiple range test. Significance was set at P = .05. 

Results: The zone of inhibition of most of the test extracts showed a significant (P = .05) difference when compared with the negative control, suggesting that majority of the extracts of the selected plant material are active against the tested pathogens. The observed lowest MIC value was 31.25 mg/ml, while the highest MIC value was 250 mg/ml. Aqueous and acetone extracts of stem showed the lowest MIC value against E. coil, while methanol and acetone leaves extracts showed highest inhibition against S. enterica. The MIC value was 31.25 mg/ml against S. aureus by aqueous stem, hexane leaves and methanol stem extracts. The aqueous stem, hexane roots and the acetone leaves extract showed the lowest (31.25 mg/ml) MIC value against C. albicans. The MIC value was 31.25 mg/ml for methanol leaves and stem extract against S. dysenteriae. 

Conclusion: The anti- microbial potency of different solvent extracts of the plant I. littoralis is varied against different pathogens causing gastro-intestinal tract infections.

Open Access Original Research Article

Preliminary Phytochemical Screening, Analgesic and Anti-inflammatory Effects of the Hydroethanol and n-Hexane Leaf Extracts of Maytenus senegalensis Lam. Excell. (Celestraceae)

M. Babakura, H. Usman, Y. A. Gaidam, U. A. Halima, A. M. Fulata

South Asian Research Journal of Natural Products, Page 1-9

For long time, medicinal plants and other natural products have been used to treat varieties of diseases and as a result a number of modern drugs have been developed from them. Several families of plants have been used in ethnomedicine to treat various ailments in which Celestraceae is one. Maytenus senegalensis sample was collected from Takwashinge Village in Dass Local Government, Bauchi State, Nigeria. Soxhlet extraction method was adopted in this study. One thousand five hundred (1500) grams of the plant material was exhaustively extracted sequentially with n-hexane and 80% ethanol. The extractives were then subjected to phytochemical evaluation, analgesic and anti-inflammatory tests using Formalin-induced pain test and egg albumin-induced paw oedema in rats.The results of the phytochemical evaluation revealed the presence of cardiac glycosides, flavonoids, saponins, tannins and terpenoids; however, anthraquinones, alkaloids and phlobatannins were absent. The results of the analgesic effect of the crude ethanol extract, and n-hexane extract of the leaf of M. senegalensison formalin-induced pain in rats showed that the extracts significantly inhibited the pain response at the different dosages with the most significant inhibition observed at higher doses at both phases. With a percentage inhibition of 81.31 and100, 56.82 and 46.97, for the crude ethanol extract andn-hexane extract respectively. The anti-inflammatory effect of the crude extract and n-hexane inhibited the oedema dose dependently and a maximum inhibition of 60.00% was observed at 400 mg/kg bd.wt. In the crude ethanol. Hence, the use of this part of plant in the treatment of ailments related to the analgesic and anti-inflammatory has gain scientific support.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Fermented Pentaclethra Macrophylla Benth (African Oil Bean) Seed Extract on Plasma Lipid Profile in Healthy Rat Model-A Preliminary Study

Innocent Chidi, Anioke

South Asian Research Journal of Natural Products, Page 1-9

Background: African oil bean seed is one of several plant products commonly used in Nigeria as food.  However, report as to whether or not it could predispose consumers to dyslipidemia is yet to be documented.

Aim: The study aim was to determine the effect of fermented Pentaclethra Macrophylla Benth (African oil bean) seed extract on lipid profile. 

Methods: A total of twenty-five (25) male rats randomly divided into five groups of five rats per group were used. Each group received the crude methanol seed extract of Pentaclethra Macrophylla Benth (MEPB) once daily at the dose of 500, 1000, 1500 and 2000 mg kg-1 body weight respectively, for 14 days except the control group.  Lipid profile parameters were determined according to enzymatic assay using a commercial kit from Randox Laboratories, United Kingdom and calculation using Friedewald’s equation.

Results: A statistically significant increase in HDL and decrease in LDL content (p < 0.05) were obtained following the administration of MEPB in all dosed groups compared with the control group. Administration of MEPB in all dosed groups improved lipid metabolism and increased percentage protection against atherogenesis by a range between 61% - 90%.

Conclusion: Fermented African oil bean seed has a positive effect on lipid metabolism and showed an anti-atherogenic property. According to the result, African oil bean seeds at the level used in the study could protect against atherosclerosis.