Open Access Original Research Article

Therapeutic Evaluation of Combretum molle (Combretaceae) (Bush Willow) Stembark Extract in Experimental Avian Coccidiosis

M. H. Garba, M. L. Sherifat, A. O. Abdul-Majid, L. M. Hafsa, L. J. Bulus, G. Yusuf

South Asian Research Journal of Natural Products, Page 1-9

Aim: The main thrust of this research work was to assess the potentials of the extract from the stem bark of Combretum molle (identified through ethno-botanical survey) using an appropriate solvent(s) In vivo against coccidial protozoa in experimental animals.

Methodology: The stem bark of the plant (Combretum molle) was collected, washed and dried at room temperature. It was then chopped into smaller fragments and pulverized using a grinder. Cold extraction was performed using 70% methanol which was filtered after 24hrs and then dried using a rotary evaporator. Thirty-five (35), day-old broiler chicks were used. They were kept for acclimatisation period of 2 weeks in the research pen and fed with broilers starter and had unrestricted access to clean water ad-libitum. After the period of acclimatization, the birds were grouped into seven (7) with each group consisting of 5 birds. High standard of hygiene conditions was maintained throughout the course of the research work. Fresh faecal samples from the infected animals were collected. The infective dose of the culture (i.e 74,000 sporulated oocyst/ml) was administered orally using 1ml syringe. The treatment was carried out on three days interval in each group for 21 days (3 weeks). Birds on group 1, 2, 3 and 4 were administered 50 mg/kg bw, 100 mg/kg Bw, 150 mg/kg bw and 200 mg/kg bw C. molle extract respectively.

Results: C. molle stem bark extract at a dosage of 50 mg/kg bw, 100 mg/kg bw, 150 mg/kg bw and 200 mg/kg bw in the treatment of broiler chicks infected with Eimeria spp parasites shows reduction in the numbers of oocyst count in each group but the treatment of coccidiosis at a dose of 150 mg/kg bw and 200 mg/kg bw in broiler chicks prove to be more efficient. The assessment of haematological and serum biochemical parameters revealed that C. molle stem bark extract has no pathological effect on the experimental animals.

Conclusion: Stembark exract of C. molle could be employed/packaged as phytomedicine against Avian coccidiosis considering its efficacy against the infective oocyst and its potency as a prophylactic agent against the protozoa. Its non-toxicity to the experimental animals is also an added advantage that will further encourage its utilisation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Study on the Anti-inflammatory and Anti-nociceptive Activities of Methanol Extracts of Terminalia ivorensis A. Chev

Opeyemi N. Avoseh, Oladipupo A. Lawal, Muritala A. Adebayo, Mausi H. Zinzu, Isiaka A. Ogunwande

South Asian Research Journal of Natural Products, Page 1-8

Aims: The present study was aimed at the determination of the anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive potentials of methanolic extracts of the stem and root bark of Terminalia ivorensis A. Chev (Combretaceae).

Study Design: The study design involved isolation of crude extracts from T. ivorensis and evaluation of the anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive potentials.

Place and Duration of Study: T. Ivoriensis Stem Bark (TISB) and Root Bark (TIRB) were collected from a location in Ore, Ondo State, Nigeria, in January 2017.

Methodology: Plant samples were extracted with 90% methanol using Soxhlet extractor. Egg-albumin induced inflammation and hot plate tests were used to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive activity respectively at a dose of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg.

Results: Extract yield of the TIRB and TISB were 20% and 24% respectively. Both extracts displayed high anti-nociceptive activities (at the peak of p<0.001) relative to time and concentration except the 400 mg/kg of TISB with reduced activity (p<0.01 at the 4th h). The egg-albumin induced inflammation was inhibited by the extracts in different doses. TISB displayed non-significant inhibition properties for all the doses. However, the 100 mg/kg of root bark showed a p<0.05 activity minimal at the 30th and 60th min but declined to non-significance as the reaction proceeds. The dose of 400 mg/kg showed a steep rise in activity from p<0.05 to p<0.01 at the 3rd and 4th h.

Conclusion: This study has shown that TISB and TIRB possess both anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory properties and thus the plant can be exploited for such.

Open Access Original Research Article

Production of Fermented Drink from Milk Extract of Tigernut (Cyperus esculentus)

A. L. Olokun, T. T. Mbagwu, J. E. Maikori

South Asian Research Journal of Natural Products, Page 1-7

The study was aimed at producing fermented drink from milk extract tiger nut (Cyperus esculentus) using lactic acid bacteria isolated from locally fermented milk (nono), and to compare it with a yoghurt brand at New Karu, Nasarawa State, in terms of physicochemical and consumers’ sensory properties. The extracted tiger nut milk was fermented with Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus in an anaerobic chamber, and the product was subjected to proximate and sensory evaluations. The result of the proximate analysis show that moisture, ash and carbohydrate were not significant (p>0.05), however crude fibre protein and fat were significant (p<0.05). The pH of all samples ranged from 4.0 – 4.2 and titrable acidity between 0.94 – 0.95. On the base of a preliminary consumers’ sensory evaluation texture was not significant for all the samples, appearance, aroma, taste, consistency and overall acceptance were significant. The result of the study revealed that tiger nut milk can be a good alternative to other source of milk for the production of fermented drink.

Open Access Original Research Article

In vitro Fungitoxicity of Four Essential Oils on Sugarcane Smut Sporisorium scitamineum Piep., in Côte d'Ivoire

Kouamé Konan Didier, N’guessan Aya Carine, Kassi Koffi Fernand Jean-Martial, Kouamé Koffi Gaston, Yao Kouadio Jacques-Edouard, Yobouet Aya Ange Naté, Koné Daouda, Zouzou Michel

South Asian Research Journal of Natural Products, Page 1-10

Aims: Sugarcane, Saccharum officinarum (Poaceae) is an important industrial crop in Côte d’Ivoire. However, many biotic constraints such as smut du to Sporisorium scitamineum lead to yield limitation. The management of this pathogen includes thermotherapy, which is not always effective and the use of systemic fungicides which have a negative impact on human health and biodiversity. This study was to evaluate the fungitoxicity of four essential oils on Sporisorium scitamineum, in Côte d’Ivoire.

Study Design: Therefore, an in vitro control trial of Sporisorium scitamineum isolates with essential oils of Ocimum gratissimum, Zingiber officinale, Cymbopogon citratus and Melaleuca quinquenervia was performed. The positive control used was propiconazole, a synthetic fungicide (triazole family). Different concentrations of the essential oils and the systemic fungicide were tested on mycelial growth and sporulation of two fungal strains S1 and S2 of Sporisorium scitamineum isolated from sugarcane varieties CP921167 and VMC93282.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was performed in 2014-2015 harvest season at the sugar bowl of Ferké in Northern Côte d’Ivoire.

Methodology: The effect of essential oils was compared to that of propiconazole. Thus, for the oils, 100 ml of different culture media at doses of 250, 500, 1000, 2000 and 4000 μl/l were prepared. Also, the media of propiconazole were used at four five doses (20, 25, 50, 100, 150 μl/l) prepared from 100 ml of REFERENCE, the positive control solution. The Petri dishes were incubated for 30 days, and the mycelial growth was assessed every 48hrs according to perpendicular axes at the base of each Petri dish. The radial growth measurements were used to calculate the inhibition rates of each product at the assessed doses, and the IC50 and IC90 of different assessed products were determined with ED50 plus V1.0 software.

Results: The results showed that the effect of essential oils of Ocimum gratissimum and Cymbopogon citratus as well as propiconazole inhibited the mycelial growth and sporulation of both smut strains at all concentrations. The essential oil of Zingiber officinale proved to be moderately inhibitory compared to that of Melaleuca quinquenervia.

Conclusion: These essential oils could be applied in vivo to assess their effect on the incidence of Sporisorium scitamineum on sugarcane cultivation with a view of a sustainable management system of sugarcane diseases, for environmental protection and human health.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antimicrobial Potential and Phytochemical Screening of Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Eucalyptus microtheca Leaves Extracts

Omer Adam Omer Ishag, Ibrahim Yaagoub Erwa, Mohamed A. Diriye, Ama Almouchakara Mamane Lawane, Hamza Mohamed Ahmed, Fatimah Ali Ahmed, Shema Elnour Mergani, Alla Elamin, Awadalla B. Omer

South Asian Research Journal of Natural Products, Page 1-6

Aims: The aim of this study is to investigate the phytochemical constituents and antimicrobial activity of the leaves extracts of Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Eucalyptus microtheca.

Study Design: Extraction of E. camaldulensis and E. microtheca leaves using five solvents of different polarities, and screening their phytochemical constituents and antimicrobial activity against five microorganisms.

Place and Duration of Study: Industrial chemistry and microbiology Departments, International University of Africa, Khartoum – Sudan, January 2017.

Methodology: The leaves of E. camaldulensis and E. microtheca were extracted using water, ethanol, chloroform, ethyl acetate and petroleum ether; the extracts were used for phytochemical screening. Five concentrations (100, 50, 25, 12.5 and 6.25 mg/mL) of each extracts prepared and tested against five organisms; Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans. Muller Hilton agar was used for growth of microorganism strains. The inhibition activity was evaluated using cup plate method with slight modification.

Results: The results of the phytochemical screening revealed the presence of tannins, steroids, saponins, flavonoids and phenolic compounds in all tested extracts of both plants. In addition, the leaf extracts from E. camaldulensis and E. microtheca were found to be effective against S. aureus, P. aeruginosa, E. coli, K. pneumonia and C. albicans. The aqueous and ethanolic extracts of both plants displayed the highest antimicrobial activity compared to other extracts. These two extracts were significantly inhibited the growth of the five pathogenic microorganisms particularly at high concentrations (100 and 50 mg/mL); while there was no inhibition effect detected at low concentrations (25 and 12.5 mg/mL). The diameter of inhibition zones at concentrations of 100 and 50 mg/mL were found to be between 11 and 35 mm.

Conclusion: These results indicated that E. species might be exploited as natural antibiotic for the treatment of several infectious diseases caused by these five microorganisms.