Aims: To provide knowledge on phytochemistry and bioactivity of Annona reticulata.
Study Design: Multidisciplinary advanced bibliographic surveys, utilization of ChemBioDraw software package and dissemination of the resulted knowledge.
Place and Duration of Study: Faculty of Science, University of Kinshasa and Department of Environmental Science, University of Gbadolite, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, between October 2017 and January 2018.
Methodology: A literature search was conducted to obtain information about the phytochemistry and pharmacognosy of A. reticulata from various electronic databases (PubMed, PubMed Central, Science Direct and Google scholar). The scientific name of this plant species was used as a keyword for the search, along with the terms phytochemistry and pharmacognosy. The chemical structures of the A. reticulata naturally occurring compounds were drawn using ChemBioDraw Ultra 12.0 software package.
Results: Results revealed that this plant is traditionally used as stimulant or pain reliever. This plant is reported to possess various biological properties like anti-oxidant, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antihelmintic, antipyretic, antihyperglycemic, analgesic, wound healing, antisickling and cytotoxic effects. These properties are due to the presence of numerous naturally occurring phytochemicals like tannins, alkaloids, phenols, glycosides, flavonoids and steroids.
Conclusion: The present review can, therefore, help inform future scientific research towards the development of novel drugs of relevance from A. reticulata to improve human health and wellbeing. Especially drug candidates for cancer treatment or external use like wound healing medicines.
Phytochemicals existence in natural sources helps to scavenge free radicals hence, offer health benefits. The study reports the phytochemical constituents of methanol and aqueous extracts of Dissotis rotundifolia whole plant. The objective of this research was to use standard procedures to screen the phytochemical presence to determine phenolic and some other organic substances in various extracts of D. rotundifolia. Organic substances of plant extracts with concentration from 0.02 to 0.10 mg/ml were prepared and mixed with appropriate volumes of reagents to read absorbance at the respective wavelength. Methanol extract had the highest content of phenolic substances as compared to aqueous extract and the standard, ascorbic acid. The outcome of this investigation put out that extracts of D. rotundifolia whole plant consist of a variety of phytochemical compounds that can expertly defend the body against oxidative stress caused by free radicals and might consequently be used as a source of potent natural medicinal compounds or food product.
Some green technologies of biomass processing such as the production of micro-size composites of biomass, microcrystalline and nanocrystalline cellulose have been explored in this study. Sizes of particles, crystallinity and degree of polymerization of cellulose, as well as yield of micro- and nanoproducts and their production cost were studied. Basic principles of green chemistry were implemented using plant biomass as a renewable natural-based raw material. Liquid and solid production wastes were converted into valuable by-products, the sale of which can cover part of production expenses of primary products. Furthermore, used water was recycled and returned to the production line. As a result, various micro- and nanoproducts were obtained from plant biomass without discharge of production waste into the environment. It has also been shown that the production cost of micro- and nanoproducts can be reduced to a great extent.
Aim: This study was conducted to investigate the potential of the protein-rich oily seeds of Citrullus lanatus (watermelon) as raw material for fermented condiment production, and conduct the microbiological, proximate and organoleptic analyses of the condiment.
Study Design: This is a laboratory-controlled experimental design.
Place and Duration of Study: Dept. of Microbiology, Food and Industrial unit, Nasarawa State University, Keffi, Nigeria, between March and May 2017.
Methodology: A local condiment (‘ogiri’) was made from dried seeds of Citrullus lanatus (watermelon) by Nigerian traditional method of condiment-making. Microbial enumerations of the fermented product and its raw (unfermented) sample were conducted using standard techniques. The proximate composition of the samples was conducted. Also, sensory evaluations of soup formulations made with the condiment from watermelon seed and a similar product from ‘egusi’ melon seed were carried out to determine their consumer acceptability.
Results: The condiment obtained from traditional fermentation of Citrullus lanatus seeds was an oily brownish paste that has a characteristic pungent smell. The enumeration of the fermentative organisms showed that total aerobic growth ranged from 3.2x102 cfu/g at the starting time to 2.88 x108 cfu/g at the end of the fermentation period. There was no fungal growth at the beginning of the fermentation, till Day 1 that ranged from 8.0x103 cfu/g to 6.0x106 cfu/g on Day 5. The result of the proximate composition show that the moisture content of the dried fermented product was 3.5%, protein was 21.1%, fat was 36.9%, carbohydrate was 33.0% and ash was 5.5%. The result of sensory evaluation generally indicated that there was no significant difference (p≥0.05) in all the quality attributes of the soup samples analyzed.
Conclusion: It can be concluded that Citrullus lanatus seeds can yield a highly nutritious, microbiologically and organoleptically acceptable fermented condiment.
Aim: In recent times, the increasing microbial resistance to drugs has necessitated the search for alternative antimicrobial agents that are derived from natural sources. Rogeria adenophylla is one of such plant that has been reported to possess medicinal properties. This study investigated the antibacterial and antifungal activity of Rogeria adenophylla J. Gay and its major phytochemical constituents.
Materials and Methods: The hexane and ethanol extracts from the leaf of the plant were tested for the presence of some phytochemicals. And the extracts were also tested using well diffusion method for their antibacterial activity against Eschericchia coli, Shigella sonnei, and Salmonella typhi and anti-fungal activities Aspergillus niger and Blastomycesdermatitidis.
Results: Preliminary phytochemical analysis showed that both hexane and ethanol leaf extracts contained alkaloids, saponins, and terpenes, only the ethanolic extract has glycosides. The result revealed that the extracts were active against the microorganisms. The ethanolic extract showed the highest zones of inhibition against tested organisms compared to hexane extract.
Conclusion: The extracts of the plant demonstrated antibacterial activity due to the presence of phytochemical constituents. Therefore, the application of the decoction of leaf of the plant in ethno medicine is justified.