South Asian Research Journal of Natural Products 2020-11-27T10:01:39+00:00 South Asian Research Journal of Natural Products Open Journal Systems <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>South Asian Research Journal of Natural&nbsp;Products</strong>&nbsp;aims to publish&nbsp;high-quality&nbsp;papers (<a href="/index.php/SARJNP/general-guideline-for-authors">Click here for Types of paper</a>) covering all aspects of research&nbsp;of naturally occurring compounds or the biology of living systems from which they are obtained.</p> Investigation of β-Lactamase Enzyme Inhibitory, Anti-Bacterial and Anti-Fungal Bio-Activities of Dillenia retusa Thumb: An Endemic Medicinal Plant to Sri Lanka 2020-10-13T02:40:51+00:00 Hettiarachchige Dona Sachindra Melshandi Jayanetti Koralalage Ramani Radhika Samarasekera Shiroma Mangalika Handunnetti Ovitigala Vithanage Don Sisira Jagathpri Weerasena Rukesh Maharjan Muhammad Iqbal Choudhary <p><em>Dillenia retusa</em> (Dilleniacea) is a medicinal plant endemic to Sri Lanka with an immense bioactive potential. To date, no studies are reported on anti-microbial potential of this plant. The present study investigates anti-bacterial, b-lactamase enzyme inhibitory and anti-fungal bio-activities of the ethanol extracts of <em>D. retusa.</em></p> <p>The leaves (DRL), fruits (DRF) and bark (DRB) of <em>D. retusa</em> were extracted with ethanol using cold extraction technique. Anti-bacterial properties of the extracts were investigated against five sensitive bacterial strains namely, <em>Shigella flexneri</em> (ATCC<sup>®</sup>12022), <em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</em> (ATCC<sup>®</sup> 10145), <em>Escherichia coli</em> (ATCC<sup>®</sup> 25922), <em>Salmonella typhi</em> (ATCC<sup>®</sup> 14028), <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> (ATCC<sup>®</sup> 6538) and four resistant bacterial strains namely, <em>Klebsiella pneumoniae</em> (MDR ATCC<sup>®</sup> 700603), <em>Escherichia coli</em> (MDR ATCC<sup>®</sup> 35218), <em>Salmonella enterica</em> (MDR ATCC<sup>®</sup> 700408) and <em>Staphylococcus aureus </em>(ATCC<sup>® </sup>MDR MRSA 252) using alamar blue micro-plate based assay. Anti-b-lactamase activity of the extracts were determined using b-lactamase enzyme inhibitory assay. Anti-fungal activity of the extracts was determined against five sensitive fungal strains namely<em>,</em> <em>Candida albicans </em>(ATCC<sup>®</sup> 14053), <em>Candida glabrata</em> (ATCC<sup>®</sup> 2001)<em>, Aspergillus niger </em>(ATCC<sup>®</sup> 1015), <em>Microsporum canis </em>(ATCC<sup>®</sup> 10214) and <em>Trichophyton rubrum</em> (ATCC <sup>®</sup>MYA-4438)) using agar-tube dilution method. Further, polyphenols and flavonoid contents of the extracts were determined. The bio-activities were statistically analyzed at p&lt;0.05.</p> <p>The extracts showed anti-bacterial activity against sensitive bacterial strains within the MIC range of 1.8-2.8 mg/mL and MBC range of 3-4.8 mg/mL and were found to be bactericidal. The extract of DRL showed the highest anti-b-lactamase activity (IC<sub>50</sub>: 226.25 ± 10.53 µg/mL) in a dose-dependent manner. The antifungal activity of the extracts was detected within the range of 1.6-3.2 mg/mL and the highest anti-fungal activity was observed for DRB against <em>C. albicans</em> which may be attributed to the high polyphenol content of DRB.</p> <p>The extracts were identified as novel potential sources of antimicrobial compounds which may impart even higher antimicrobial activities upon bio-activity guided fractionation and purification of extracts.</p> 2020-10-10T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Comparative Evaluation of Mineral and Vitamin Composition of Fermented Wet and Dried Maize Porridge (Akamu) 2020-10-23T04:44:36+00:00 Rizwan A. Ansari Karimah Mohammed Rabiu Ewa Ogbonnaya Oladunni O. Otanwa <p>The aim of this study was to comparatively evaluate the nutrient composition of Wet and Dry Pap (akamu) Samples (WPS and DPS). 2 kg of white maize grains was steeped in 1000 ml of clean water for 3 days at room temperature (30±2°C). The water used was drained off and the wet grains were washed thoroughly with clean water before milling after which the resulting paste was mixed with 1000 ml of clean water. The slurry of the mixture was placed in a muslin cloth and was filtered. The filtrate was allowed to stand for 24 hours after which the supernatant was decanted. The product collected which is the pap (akamu) was placed inside muslin cloth and left to stand for 12 hours to facilitate draining. 0.5 Kg of the freshly prepared pap (akamu) was sun dried in a solar tent drier for 12 hours at 55±3°C to produce the Dry Pap Sample (DPS). Minerals, proximate and vitamin compositions of the samples were evaluated using standard methods. Analysis on the samples revealed that the amount of minerals was significantly higher in WPS Ca (63.34±0.36 mg/100 g), Mg (53.46±0.36 mg/100 g), K (43.05±0.05 mg/100 g), and Na (30.50±0.06 mg/100 g) than in DPS Ca (51.62±0.08 mg/100 g), Mg (29.76±0.42 mg/100 g), K (26.38±1.37 mg/100 g), Na (25.43±0.14 mg/100 g). However, similar evaluation to ascertain the amount of vitamins in the samples showed that the amount of vitamins B1, B2, B3 and B6 was significantly (P&lt;0.05) higher in WPS B1 (1.49±0.42 mg/100 g), B2 (5.38±0.42 mg/100 g) B3 (1.15±0.03 mg/100 g) and B6 (5.98±0.23 mg/100 g) than in DPS B1 (0.9±0.11 mg/100 g), B2 (5.33±0.46 mg/100 g), B3 (1.83±0.02 mg/100 g) and B6 (4.17±0.81 mg/100 g). Proximate analysis on the samples revealed that moisture, protein, fat, ash, fibre content was significantly (P&lt;0.05) higher in WPS than in DPS. However, carbohydrate content was significantly (P&lt;0.05) higher in DPS (97.3±0.12 mg/100 g) than in WPS (81.4±0.16 mg/100 g). From this study, it can be deduced that drying to produce powdered pap results to significant nutrient loss. However being the only means by which the resource poor caregivers can boost the shelf-life this very important food product, supplementation with affordable and locally available nutrient dense sources is strongly advised.</p> 2020-10-23T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Granule Morphology and Physicochemical Properties of Flours of Three Yams Species: Colocasia esculenta, Xanthosoma sagittifolium and Plectranthus rotundifolius 2020-11-26T12:12:23+00:00 H. A. C. O. Hettiarachchi V. P. N. Prasadi A. M. M. U. Adikari K. D. P. P. Gunathilake <p><strong>Aims:</strong> <em>Colocasia esculenta</em> (Gahala), <em>Xanthosoma sagittifolium</em> (Kiriala) and <em>Plectranthus rotundifolius</em> (Innala) are three underutilized yam varieties in Sri Lanka, which have not been exploited sufficiently for various aspects in the food industry. Therefore, the research was conducted to evaluate the granule morphology, physicochemical and functional properties of flours obtained from three yams.</p> <p><strong>Study Design: </strong>&nbsp;Complete Randomized Design.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study:</strong> Department of Food Science and Technology, Faculty of Livestock, Fisheries and Nutrition, Wayamba University of Sri Lanka, Makandura, Gonawila, (NWP), Sri Lanka between April 2016 and August 2016.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> Granule morphology, proximate composition, swelling power (SP), solubility index (SI), least gelation concentration (LGC), water holding capacity (WHC) and oil holding capacities (OHC), viscosity, emulsifying capacity and emulsion stability, foaming capacity and foam stability (FS) of flour samples (≤0.250 mm) were determined. Gelatinization characteristics were evaluated using Brabender viscoamylograph.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> At 80°C, higher SI were observed compared with other temperatures used and were within the range of 16.85-22.21%. LGC of all flours were within the range of 5-7% (w/v) indicating that they can be utilized as gel-forming material in food products. Gelatinization temperatures (GT) for <em>Colocasia esculenta, Xanthosoma sagittifolium</em>, and <em>Plectranthus rotundifolius</em> flour the ranged between 65-84°C, 75-94.5°C, 72-86.25°C respectively. <em>Colocasia esculenta</em> flour showed the lowest GT (65-84°C) and which is more preferable over other flour types.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Hence it is perceptible that flours obtained from above yam species can be utilized in the food industry.</p> 2020-11-26T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Preliminary Assessment of the Antimicrobial Susceptibility Pattern of Some Halitosis-causing Oral Bacterial Isolates to Extracts of the Plant Garcinia kola 2020-11-27T10:01:39+00:00 Chukwudi I. Nnamchi Oluchi B. Mbah Kenneth Ugwu <p>The emergence of multidrug resistant microorganisms and other forms of multiple drug failures has increased the quest for alternatives to conventional medicines. <em>Garcinia kola</em> is considered one of the most promising such alternatives. In order to test its efficacy against some oral infections, a total of seven oral bacterial isolates from different human samples and two standard cultures serving as control, were tested for their susceptibility to cold water, hot water, hexane and ethanol extracts of fruits of <em>Garcinia kola </em>whose phytochemical properties had been determined, using the agar well diffusion method. Results obtained showed that the ethanol extract was active against 80% of the test organisms, followed by cold water extract, which was active against 45.5% of the organisms. Extracts from hot water and hexane gave the least activities which were 18.8% and 15.5% respectively against the isolates. The minimum active concentrations of the extracts were different for the different extracts and microorganisms, although the ethanolic extract again gave the best results. The mainly positive results obtained during the study correlates well with the presence of several phytochemicals including steroids, flavonoids, saponins that have been reported in <em>Garcinia kola</em>. These findings partly explain the many positive health claims that have been attributed to the plant by many of its users in many parts of Nigeria and Africa.</p> 2020-11-27T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##