Renal and Cardiovascular Effects of Prolonged intake of Monosodium Glutamate and Soybean on Wistar Rats
South Asian Research Journal of Natural Products,
Background: This study investigated the biochemical effects of prolonged administration of monosodium glutamate (MSG) and soybeans in both male and female rats, using standard methods.
Methods: A total of two hundred and ten (210) Wistar rats (70 – 78g) were divided equally into three groups representing the various experimental durations (2, 4, and 6 months). Each of these groups was further sub-divided equally into fourteen (14) subgroups (7 groups for male rats and 7 groups for female rats). Out of the 7 groups for both the male and female rats, a group represented the control rats only fed commercial rat chow and water, whereas the rest were orally administered any of the 1000 mg/kg b.w (low dose), 2000 mg/kg b.w (medium dose), or 3000 mg/kg b.w (high dose) of aqueous extract of monosodium glutamate or soybean.
Results: No significant changes were observed in the urea levels after 2 and 4 months soybean respective administration to female and male rats, while H.D MSG significantly elevated the creatinine levels of male and female rats after 4 and 6 months administration. Administration of soybeans and MSG for 2 and 4 months had no significant effect on the bicarbonate and chloride levels. The HDL levels were significantly reduced while LDL, TC, and TG were significantly elevated after 6 months H.D administration of MSG and soybeans.
Conclusion: This study has shown that the prolonged high dose administration of monosodium glutamate produced diminishes the functional integrity of the kidney and the cardiovascular system regardless of gender.
- monosodium glutamate
How to Cite
Leung AY, Foster S. "Monosodium Glutamate". Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients: Used in Food, Drugs, and Cosmetics (2nd Ed.). New York: Wiley. ISBN 978-0-471-47128-8. 2003;373-5.
Okediran B, Ajibola E, Biobaku K, Thomas F, Rahman S, Anise E. (2015). In vivo effects of lead on haemogram and hepatic enzymes. Folia Veterinarian, 54(4): 214-21
Onaolapo AY, Onaolapo OJ, Mosaku TJ, Akanji OO, Abiodun O. A Histological Study of the Hepatic and Renal Effects of Subchronic Low Dose Oral Monosodium Glutamate in Swiss Albino Mice, British Journal of Medicine and Medical Research. 2013;3(2): 294-306,
Messina M. Soy and Health Update: Evaluation of the Clinical and Epidemiologic Literature. Nutrients, 2016;8(12):754.
Rizzo G, Baroni L. Soy, Soy Foods and Their Role in Vegetarian Diets. Nutrients. 2018;10(1):43.
Orgaard A, Jensen L. The Effects of Soy Isoflavones on Obesity. Experimental Biology and Medicine. 2008; 233:1066-80.
Bayoumy MM. Comparative Study of Nutritional Recovery with Soybean and Casein Meals in Malnourished Rats. American Eurasian Journal of Scientific Research. 2013;8(1):01-09.
IITA. Dramatic synergism between excess soybean intake and iodine deficiency on thedevelopment of rat thyroid hyperplasia. Carcinogenesis. 1990;21:707–13.
Alada A, Ajayi F, Alaka O, Akande O. Effects of Soybean diet preparationson acid secretion and experimental ulceration in the rat. Afr. J. Med. med. Sci. 2004;8: 203–5.
Amer N. Effects of Soybean Seed on Glucose Levels, Lipid Profiles and Histological Structures of the Liver in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Albino Rats, Tikrit Journal of Pure Science. 2012;17(2): 1-6.
Lorke D. A new approach to practical acute toxicity testing. Archives of toxicology, 1983;54(4):275–87.
Henry JB. Clinical diagnosis and management by laboratory methods. 18th Ed. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders. 1991;204–11.
Anderson JW, Fuller J, Patterson K, Blair R, Tabor A. Soy compared to casein meal replacement shakes with energy-restricted diets for obese women: randomized controlled trial. Metabolism. 2007;56:280–8.
He FJ, MacGregor GA. A comprehensive review on salt and health and current experience of worldwide salt reduction programmes. Journal of Human Hypertension. 2009;23(6):363-84.
Syzdek J, Borkowska R, Perzyna K, Tarascon JM, Wieczorek W. Novel composite polymeric electrolytes with surface-modified inorganic fillers. Journal of Power Sources. 2007;173(2):712–20.
Syzdek J, Armand M, Gizowska M, Marcinek M, Sasim E, Szafran M, Wieczorek W. Ceramic-in-polymer versus polymer-in-ceramic polymeric electrolytes—A novel approach. Journal of Power Sources. 2009;194(1):66–72.
Okon A, Kingsley P, Jacks D. The Effect of Monosodium Glutamate (MSG) on the Gross Weight of the Heart of Albino Rats, J. App. Med. Sci. 2013;1(2):44-47.
Kraut JA, Madias NE. Serum anion gap: its uses and limitations in clinical medicine. Clinical journal of the American Society of Nephrology: CJASN. 2007;2(1):162–74.
Patel A, Felstead D, Doraiswami M, Stocks GM, Waheed U. Acute starvation in pregnancy: a cause of severe metabolic acidosis. International Journal of Obstetric Anesthesia. 2011;20(3):253–6.
Kashyap MK, Saxena SV, Khullar M, Sawhney H, Vasishta K. Role of anion gap and different electrolytes in hypertension during pregnancy (preeclampsia). Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry. 2006;282(1-2):157–67.
Taylor EN, Forman JP, Farwell WR. Serum anion gap and blood pressure in the national health and nutrition examination survey. Hypertension (Dallas, Tex.: 1979), 2007;50(2):320–24.
Mizushige T, Mizushige K, Miyatake A, Kishida T, Ebihara K. Inhibitory effects of soy isoflavones on cardiovascular collagen accumulation in rats. J. Nutr. Sci. Vitaminol. 2007;53:48-52.
Lovati M, Manzoni C, Gianazza E, Arnoldi A, Kurowska E. Soyprotein peptides regulate cholesterol homeostasis in Hep G2 cells. J. Nutr. 2000;130:2543-49.
Gianazza E, Eberini I, Arnoldi A, Wait R, Sirtori CR. A proteomic investigation of isolated soy proteins with variable effects in experimental and clinical studies. J. Nutr. 2003;133:9-14.
Fassini PG, Noda RW, Ferreira ES, Silva MA, Neves VA. Soybean glycinin improves HDL-C and suppresses the effects of rosuvastatin on hypercholesterolemic rats. Lipids Health Dis. 2011;34:17-23.
Sirtori CR, Lovati MR. Soy proteins and cardiovascular disease. Curr Atheroscelor Rep. 2001;3:47–53
Retelny VS, Neuendorf A, Roth JL. Nutrition protocols for the prevention of cardiovascular disease. Nutr Clin Pract. 2008;23:468–76.
Matthan NR, Jalbert SM, Ausman LM, Kuvin JT, Karas RH, Lichtenstein AH. Effect of soy protein from differently processed products on cardiovascular disease risk factors and vascular endothelial function in hypercholesterolemic subjects. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2007;85(4):960–6.
Vidyavati HG, Manjunatha H, Hemavathy J, Srinivasan K. Hypolipidemic and antioxidant efficacy of dehydrated onion in experimental rats. J. Food Sci. Technol. 2010;47:55-60.
Fukui K, Tachibana N, Wanezaki S, Tsuzaki S, Takamatsu K. Isoflavone-free soy protein prepared by column chromatography reduces serum cholesterol in rats. J. Agric. Food Chem. 2002;50:5717-21.
Adams MR, Golden DL, Franke AA, Potter SM, Smith HS. Dietary soy betaconglycinin (7S globulin) inhibits atherosclerosis in mice. J. Nutr. 2004;134:511-6.
Abstract View: 210 times
PDF Download: 121 times