Main Article Content
Background: Working with bioactive substances from the medicinal plant requires various steps from plant extract preparation to the calculation for scientific evaluation and safe medicinal plant extract administration. The paper aims to discuss procedures involve in evaluating bioactive compounds from medicinal plants.
Methodology: Review of relevant literature.
Results: We have described the preparation of plant extract, toxicological methods of evaluating bioactive substances, vehicles for biological research, evaluating analgesic, neuropharmacological and anti-inflammatory activities from medicinal plants.
Conclusion: Medicinal plants are potent stores of bioactive compounds that needed to be carefully extracted, toxicologically and preliminarily evaluated in animals for new drug development.
Azwanida NN. A review on the extraction methods uses in medicinal plants, principle, strength and limitation. Medicinal and Aromatic Plants. 2015;4:196.
Venugopal R, Liu RH. Phytochemicals in diets for breast cancer prevention: The importance of resveratrol and ursolic acid. Food Sci Hum Well. 2012;1:1-13.
Khan AR, Sadiq IZ, Abdullahi LI, Danlami D, Taneja P. Chemoprotective role of bovine lactoferricin against 7, 12 dimethylbenz (a) anthracene induced skin cancer in female swiss albino mice. int J pharm pharm sci. 2016;8(8):215-222.
Sadiq IZ, Abubakar FS, Ibrahim B, Usman MA, Kudan ZB. Medicinal plants for management and alternative therapy of common ailments in Dutsin-Ma (Katsina State) in Nigeria. Herba Pol. 2019;65(4): 45-55.
Bussmann RW, Malca G, Glenn A, Sharon D, Nilsen B, Parris B, et al. Toxicity of medicinal plants used in traditional medicine in Northern Peru. J Ethnopharmacol. 2011;137(1):121–140
Mukherjee PK, Maity N, Nema NK, Sarkar BK. Bioactive compounds from natural resources against skin aging. Phytomedicine. 2011;19: 64-73.
Cosa P, Vlietinck AJ, Berghe DV, Maes, L. Anti-infective potential of natural products: How to develop a stronger in vitro ‘proof-of-concept’. J ethnopharmacol. 2006;106: 290–302.
Sasidharan S, Chen Y, Saravanan D, Sundram KM, Yoga Latha L. Extraction, isolation and characterization of bioactive compounds from plants' extracts. Afr J Trad Complem. 2001;8(1):1–10.
Handa SS, Khanuja SPS, Longo G, Rakesh DD. Extraction technologies for medicinal and aromatic plants, (1st edn). Italy: United Nations Industrial Development Organization and the International Centre for Science and High Technology. 2008;66.
Yung OH, Maskat MY, Wan Mustapha WA. Effect of extraction on polyphenol content, antioxidant activity and pH in pegaga (Centella asiatica). Sains Malaysiana. 2010;39:747-752.
Amid, Salim RJ, Adenan M. The factors affecting the extraction conditions for newroprotective activity of Centella asiatica evaluated by metal chelating activity assay. J Appl Sci. 2010;10:837-842.
Kaufmann B, Christen P. Recent extraction techniques for natural products: Microwave-assisted extraction and pressurized solvent extraction. Phytochem Anal. 2002;13:105-113.
Rahmalia W, Fabre JF, Mouloungui Z. Effects of cyclohexane/acetone ratio on bixin extraction yield by accelerated solvent extraction method. Procedia Chem. 2015;14:455-464.
Methods optimization in accelerated solvent extraction in technical note. 2013; 208: 1-4.
Trusheva B, Trunkova D, Bankova V. Different extraction methods of biologically active components from propolis: A preliminary study. Chem Cent J. 2007;13.
Tan Ji T, Jiang G, Hu F. Simultaneous identification and quantification of five flavonoids in the seeds of Rheum palmatum L. by using accelerated solvent extraction and HPLC-PDA-ESI/MSn. Arab J Chem. 2014;12:1345-1352.
Patil, Sachin BS, Wakte PS, Shinde DB. Optimization of supercritical fluid extraction and HPLC identification of wedelolactone from Wedelia calendulacea by orthogonal array design. J Adv Res. 2013;5:629-635.
Naudé Y, De Beer WHJ, Jooste S, Van Der Merwe L, Van Rensburg SJ. Comparison of supercritical fluid extraction and Soxhlet extraction for the determination of DDT, DDD and DDE in sediment. Water SA.1998;24:205-214.
Gad S, Cassidy C, Aubert N, Spainhour B, Robbe H. Nonclinical Vehicle Use in Studies by Multiple Routes in Multiple Species. Inter J Toxicol. 2006;25(6):499-521.
Gad SC. Routes in toxicology: An overview. J. Am. Coll. Toxicol. 1994;13: 34–39.
Frutuoso Vda S, Monteiro MM, Amendoeira FC, Almeida AL, do Nascimento DD, Bérenger AL, Kaplan MA, Figueiredo MR, Bozza PT, Castro- Faria-Neto HC. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of the aqueous extract of Rheedia longifolia Planch & Triana Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2007; 102(1):91-6.
Martinez RM, Zarpelon AC, Domiciano TP, Georgetti SR, Baracat MM, Moreira IC, Andrei CC, Verri WA Jr, Casagrande R. Antinociceptive effect of Tephrosia sinapou extract in the acetic acid, phenyl-p-benzoquinone, formalin, and complete freund's adjuvant models of overt pain-like behavior in mice. Scientifica (Cairo). 2016; 2016:8656397
Lorke D. A new approach to practical acute toxicity testing. Arch Toxicol. 1983; 54(4):275-287.
Chinedu E, Arome D, Ameh FS. A new method for determining acute toxicity in animal models. Toxicol Inter. 2013;20(3): 224–226.
Bruce RD. An up-and-down procedure for acute toxicity testing. Fundam Appl Toxicol. 1985;5:151–7.
Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Guideline for the testing of chemicals 423. Documentation on acute oral toxicity and acute class method; 2001.
[Last accessed on 6 June 2020]
Le Tourneau C, Stathis A, Vidal L, Moore MJ, Siu LL. Choice of starting dose for molecularly targeted agents evaluated in first-in-human phase I cancer clinical trials. J Clin Oncol. 2010;28(8):1401-1407.
Hosseini A, Shorofi SA, Davoodi A, Azadbakht M. Starting dose calculation for medicinal plants in animal studies; recommendation of a simple and reliable method. Res J Pharmacogn. 2018;5(2):1-7.
Nair AB, Jacob S. A simple practice guide for dose conversion between animals and human. J Basic Clin Pharma. 2016;7:27-31.
Eddy NB, Leimback D. Synthetic analgesic II. Diethlenyl butenyl and dithienyl butylamines. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1953; 107:385–393.
Fan S, Ali N, Basri D. Evaluation of analgesic activity of the methanol extract from the galls of Quercus infectoria (olivier) in rats. Evid Based Complementary Alter Med. 2014;1-6.
Sewell R. Antinociceptive activity of narcotic agonist and partial agonist analgesics and other agents in the tail-immersion test in mice and rats. Neuro Pharmacology. 1976;15(11):683-688.
Anisuzzman M, Hasan MM, Acharzo AK, Das AK, Rahman S. In vivo and in vitro evaluation of pharmacological potentials of secondary bioactive metabolites of Dalbergia candenatensis leaves. Evid Based Complementary Alter med: eCAM. 2017;5034827.
Johnson P, Besselsen D. Practical aspects of experimental design in animal research. ILAR Journal. 2002;43(4):202-206.
Malairajan P, Gopalakrishnan G, Narasimhan S, Jessi Kala Veni K. Analgesic activity of some Indian medicinal plants. J Ethnopharmacol. 2006;106(3): 425-428.
Zihad S, Bhowmick N, Uddin S, Sifat N, Rahman M, Rouf R. et al. Analgesic activity, chemical profiling and computational study on Chrysopogon aciculatus. Front pharmacol. 2018;15(9): 1164.
Oguntibeju OO. Medicinal plants with anti-inflammatory activities from selected countries and regions of Africa. J Inflamm Res. 2018;11:307-317