Anti Hyperglycemic Effects and Histological Changes in Streptozotocin Induced Diabetic Rats fed with High Concentration of Colocasia esculenta Flour

Uro-Chukwu, H.C *

Department of Medical Biochemistry, David Umahi Federal University of Health Sciences, Uburu, Nigeria, Institute for Nutrition, Nutraceuticals & Public Health Research & Development, Nigeria and Department of Community Medicine, Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki, Nigeria.

Ezekwe, A.S

Department of Medical Biochemistry, Rivers State University, Nkporlu, Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

Roberts, F

Department of Medical Biochemistry, Rivers State University, Nkporlu, Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

Okari, K. A

Department of Medical Biochemistry, Rivers State University, Nkporlu, Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

Uro-Chukwu, F.N.C

Institute for Nutrition, Nutraceuticals & Public Health Research & Development, Nigeria.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Abstract

Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) affects 536.6 million people globally, with an estimated 12.2% growth by 2045. DM management is extremely expensive, hence alternative treatments combining the use of therapeutic plant foods are being investigated. Because Colocasia esculenta “cocoyam” (CYN) is one of these plants, the primary goal of this research was to investigate the effects of CYN high concentration (CHC) extracts on biochemical and histological levels in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

Methodology: Locally sourced CYN was ground into a fine powder, molded into pellets, dried in an oven at 60°C, and stored. Forty-two male albino rats weighing between 134 and 247 grams were prepared. Insulin resistance was induced with a low-dose fructose diet. Streptozotocin (STZ) was used to induce type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The experimental formulation was administered for 28 days, after which the animals were sacrificed and their organs and blood samples were taken for various biochemical and histological analyses. The rats' body and organ weights were also measured.

Results & Discussion: The active biological substances in the cocoyam flour included phenolics, E-stilbene, phthalate, and artemisinin, along with more antioxidant minerals than those found in rat meals that are sold commercially. The formulation exhibited catalase (CAT) activity of 7.9 units/min and DPPH of 53.2%. Poor glycemic control was suggested by the persistently elevated random blood glucose readings observed along the time trend. Both the usual control group and the cocoyam-fed group have identical histological features in their liver and pancreas.

Conclusion: Although having a poor glycemic control, a high concentration of cocoyam flour in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (SIDRs) demonstrated comparable histological effects to the anti-diabetic drug, metformin, suggesting that it could be used as an additional treatment for patients with type 2 diabetes.

Keywords: Cocoyam flour, histology, diabetic rats, histological analyses, metabolic disease, hyperglycemia


How to Cite

Uro-Chukwu, H.C, Ezekwe, A.S, Roberts, F, Okari, K. A, & Uro-Chukwu, F.N.C. (2024). Anti Hyperglycemic Effects and Histological Changes in Streptozotocin Induced Diabetic Rats fed with High Concentration of Colocasia esculenta Flour. South Asian Research Journal of Natural Products, 7(2), 123–134. Retrieved from https://journalsarjnp.com/index.php/SARJNP/article/view/145

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