In vitro Antioxidant and Biological Activities of Extract and Fractions from Telfairia occidentalis Stems

Godwin Ndarake Enin *

Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Physical Sciences, University of Uyo, Uyo, Nigeria.

Basil Nse Ita

Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Physical Sciences, University of Uyo, Uyo, Nigeria.

Blessing Jumbo

Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Physical Sciences, University of Uyo, Uyo, Nigeria.

Mfoniso Udofot James

Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Physical Sciences, University of Uyo, Uyo, Nigeria.

Sarah Etim Joseph

Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Physical Sciences, University of Uyo, Uyo, Nigeria.

Bassey Sunday Antia

Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Physical Sciences, University of Uyo, Uyo, Nigeria.

Paul Sunday Thomas

Department of Pharmacognosy and Natural Medicine, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Uyo, Uyo, Nigeria.

Jude Efiom Okokon

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Uyo, Uyo, Nigeria.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Telfairia occidentalis (TO) Hook is a widely consumed vegetable in Nigeria. This study investigated the antioxidant and antidiabetic activities of stem ethanol extract (ETTO) and fractions (hexane, HTO; dichloromethane, DTO; ethylacetate, ETO; methanol, MTO and aqueous, Aq.TO) from Telfairia occidentalis by measuring the scavenging activity, reducing power, total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), and the in vivo alpha amylase and glucosidase inhibitory effects. The ethanol stem extract exhibited significant (p < 0.05) reduction in blood glucose levels of treated rats. ETO exhibited the highest radical scavenging (EC50 = 116.256 µg/mL) and reducing (EC50 = 55.218 µg/mL) activity. Contents of total phenolics and flavonoids were highest in ETO (22.17 mg GAE/ g and 129.56 RE/ g respectively), while HTO showed the lowest radical scavenging and reducing activity (EC50 = 249.159 µg/mL and 97.781 µg/mL respectively). Gass chromatography-mass spectrum (GC-MS) analysis of the fractions revealed that saturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids, amino acids, alcohols, amides and straight chain hydrocarbons were the major constituents. This research demonstrates that the stem extract and fractions of TO may alleviate oxidative-stress related diseases and exhibit antidiabetic activity, potentially through the inhibition of alpha amylase and alpha glucosidase enzymes, which may be attributed to its phytochemical constituents.

Keywords: Telfairia occidentalis stem, antioxidant assay, total phenolics, flavonoids, alpha amylase and glucosidase, GC-MS

How to Cite

Enin , G. N., Ita , B. N., Jumbo , B., James, M. U., Joseph, S. E., Antia, B. S., Thomas , P. S., & Okokon , J. E. (2024). In vitro Antioxidant and Biological Activities of Extract and Fractions from Telfairia occidentalis Stems. South Asian Research Journal of Natural Products, 7(2), 102–122. Retrieved from


Download data is not yet available.


Yusupova ZA, Baratjon ogli SF, Abduqunduzovna MZ. Medicinal plants growing in our republic medicinal properties. Periodica Journal of Modern Philosophy, Social Sciences and Humanities. 2023; 7(15):5-7.

Karahan F, Ozyigit II, Saracoglu IA, Yalcin IE, Ozyigit AH, Ilcim A. Heavy metal levels and mineral nutrient status in different parts of various medicinal plants collected from eastern Mediterranean region of Turkey. Biological Trace Element Research. 2020;197:316-329.

Ouandaogo HS, Diallo S, Odari E, Kinyua J. Phytochemical Screening and GC-MS Analysis of Methanolic and Aqueous Extracts of Ocimum kilimandscharicum Leaves. ACS omega. 2023;8(50):47560-47572.

Eseyin OA, Sattar MA, Rathore HA. A review of the pharmacological and biological activities of the aerial parts of Telfairia occidentalis Hook. f. (Cucurbitaceae). Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research. 2014;13(10): 1761-1769. Available:

Agbede, JO, Adegbenro M, Onibi GE, Oboh C, Aletor VA. Nutritive evaluation of Telfairia occidentalis leaf protein concentrate in infant foods. African Journal of Biotechnology. 2008;7(15): 2721-2727. Available:

Okpiabhele UUA, Adegbegi AJ. Telfairia occidentalis Hook f. Mitigates Carbon-Tetrachloride-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Wistar Rats. Journal of Science and Technology Research. 2003;5(2). Available:

Oboh G, Akindahunsi AA. Change in the ascorbic acid, total phenol and antioxidant activity of sun-dried commonly consumed green leafy vegetables in Nigeria. Nutrition and Health. 2004;18(1):29-36.

Aiyeloja AA, Bello OA. Ethnobotanical potentials of common herbs in Nigeria: A case study of Enugu state. Educational Research and Reviews. 2006;1(1):16.

Eseyin OA, Ebong P, Ekpo A, Igboasoiyi A, Oforah E. Hypoglycaemic effect of the seed extract of Telfairia occidentalis in rats. Pak. J. Biol. Sci. 2007;10:498-501.

Ejike CE, Ezeanyika LU. Inhibition of the Experimental Induction of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia: A Possible Role for Fluted Pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis Hook f.) Seeds. Urologia Intern. 2011;87(2):218-224.

Okokon JE, Dar A, Choudhary MI. Chemical constituents and analgesic activity of Telfairia occidentalis. Phytopharmacol. 2012;3:359-3.

Eseyin, AO, Oforah E, Dooka BD. Preliminary study of the hypoglycemic action of the extract of leaf of Telfairea occidentalis in normoglycemic guinea pigs. Global Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences. 2000;6(4):639-641.

Ogbonnaya EA, Uadia OP. Short term effect of aqueous extracts of root, pod, and stem of Telfairia occidentalis on some biochemical parameters in rats. Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management. 2014;18(1):113-118.

Inuwa HM, Aimola IA, Muhammad A, Habila N, Okibe P, Latayo M, Ahmed Z. Isolation and determination of omega-9 fatty acids from Telfairia occidentalis. International Journal of Food Nutrition and Safety. 2012;1(1):9-14.

Eseyin OA, Sattar MA, Rathore HA, Aigbe F, Afzal S, Ahmad A, Lazhari M, Akthar S. GC-MS and HPLC proiles of phenolic fractions of the leaf of Telfairia occidentalis. Pakistan Journal OF Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2018;31(1).

Cyril-Olutayo C, Agbedahunsi J, Elufioye O. Antisickling properties of some indigenous and exotic plant species in Nigeria. Planta Medica. 2012;78(11):I2-17.

Oladele JO, Oyeleke OM, Awosanya OO, Olowookere BD, Oladele, O.T. Fluted Pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis) protects against phenyl hydrazine-induced anaemia and associated toxicities in rats. Advances in Traditional Medicine. 2021;21(4):739-745.

Pelletier SW, Chokshi HP, Desai HK. Separation of diterpenoid alkaloid mixtures using vacuum liquid chromatography. Journal of Natural Products. 1986;49(5):892-900.

Njinga NS, Bakare-Odunola MT, Abdullahi ST, Okonkwo JA, Oladimeji OH. Comparative phytochemical analysis and antioxidant activity of the stem and seed of Telfairia occidentalis Hook. F. (Curcurbitaceae). J. Pharm. Res. Dev. & Pract. 2016;1(1):69-78 ISSN:2579-0455.

Enin GN, Antia BS, Shaibu SE, Nyakno I. Comparison of the chemical composition, nutritional values, total phenolics and flavonoids content of the ripe and unripe Solanum nigrum Linn. Fruits from Nigeria. World Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2023;12 (8)1-18. DOI: 10.20959/wjpps20238-25410.

Kim DO, Jeong SW, Lee CY. Antioxidant capacity of phenolic phytochemicals from various cultivars of plums. Food chemistry. 2003; 81(3):321-326.

Subhashini R, Rao UM, Sumathi P, Gunalan G. A comparative phytochemical analysis of cocoa and green tea. Indian Journal of Science and Technology. 2010;3(2):188-192.

Shekhar TC, Anju G. Antioxidant activity by DPPH radical scavenging method of Ageratum conyzoides Linn. Leaves, American Journal of Ethnomedicine. 2014;1(4):244-249.

Oyaizu M. Evaluation of antioxidant activity of extract of natural origin. Journal of Nutrition. 1986;44:107-112.

Gidado A, Watafua M, Sa'ad RS, Tagi HS, Abdullahi S. Alpha-amylase, maltase and sucrase inhibitions by aqueous leaf extracts of Anacardium occidentale (Anacardiacea) and Piliostigma reticulatum (Caesalpiniaceae) in rats. Tropical Journal of Natural Product Research. 2019;3(6): 210-215. Available:

World Health Organization (2011). Glucose analyser. Core medical equipment information. Accessed on: 5 June, 2019.

Kadhim MJ, Mohammed GJ, Hussein H. Analysis of bioactive metabolites from Candida albicans using (GC-MS) and evaluation of antibacterial activity. International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research. 2016;8(7):655-670.

Kalra S. Alpha Glucosidase Inhibitors. The Journal of Pakistan Medical Association. 2014; 64(4):474-476.

Alongi M, Anese M. Effect of coffee roasting on in vitro α-glucosidase activity: Inhibition and mechanism of action. Food Research International. 2018;111:480-487.


Ibrahim MA, Koorbanally NA, Islam MS. Anti-oxidative activity and inhibition of key enzymes linked to type 2 diabetes (α-glucosidase and α-amylase) by Khaya senegalensis. Acta Pharmaceutica. 2014; 64(3):311-324. Available:

Esimone CO, Okonta JM, Ezugwu CO. Blood sugar lowering effect of Anacardium occidentale leaf extract in experimental rabbit model. Journal of Natural Remedies. 2001;1(1):60–63.

Proença C, Freitas M, Ribeiro D, Oliveira EF, Sousa JL, Tome SM, Ramos MJ, Silva A, Fernandes PA, Fernandes E. α-Glucosidase inhibition by flavonoids: an in vitro and in silico structure–activity relationship study. Journal of Enzyme Inhibition and Medicinal Chemistry. 2017; 32(1):1216-1228.


Su J, Tang Z. Effects of (-)-epigallocatechin gallate and quercetin on the activity and structure of α-amylase. Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research. 2019;18(3):585-590.


Oboh G, Olasehinde TA, Ademosun AO. Inhibition of enzymes linked to type-2 diabetes and hypertension by essential oils from peels of orange and lemon. International Journal of Food Properties. 2017; 20(sup1):S586-S594. Available:

Kalita D, Holm DG, LaBarbera DV, Petrash JM, Jayanty SS. Inhibition of α-glucosidase, α-amylase, and aldose reductase by potato polyphenolic compounds. PloS One 2018; 13(1): e0191025.


Funke I, Melzig MF. Effect of different phenolic compounds on α-amylase activity screening by microplate-reader based kinetic assay. Die Pharmazie-An International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2005;60(10):796–797.

Ishnava KB, Metisariya DM. In vitro study on α-amylase inhibitory activity of selected ethnobotanical plant extra its and its herbal formulations. International Journal of Pharmacognosy and Chinese Medicine. 2018;2(3):01-10.

Irondi EA, Akintunde JK, Agboola SO, Boligon AA, Athayde ML. Blanching influences the phenolics composition, antioxidant activity, and inhibitory effect of Adansonia digitata leaves extract on α‐amylase, α‐glucosidase, and aldose reductase. Food science & nutrition. 2017; 5(2):233-242.

Shori AB. Screening of antidiabetic and antioxidant activities of medicinal plants. Journal of Integrative Medicine. 2015;13(5):297-305.

Eseyin OA, Ebong P, Eyong EU, Umoh E, Agboke A. Hypoglycaemic activity of ethyl acetate fraction of the leaf extract of Telfairia occidentalis. Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2010;23(3): 341-344.

Siswadi S, Saragih GS. Phytochemical analysis of bioactive compounds in ethanolic extract of Sterculia quadrifida R. Br. In AIP Conference Proceedings. 2021; 2353(1).

Enin GN, Okokon JE, Odokwo BO, Antia BS. Phytochemical Screening and in vivo Inhibitory Study of Telfaira occidentalis Hook f. Seeds Extract on Alpha Amylase and Alpha Glucosidase of Rats. Journal of Science and Technology Research. 2023;5(4).

Enin GN, Okokon JE, David EM, Emmanuel SE, Ekanem EM, Antia BS. 2023. In vivo Alpha-amylase and Alpha-glucosidase Inhibitory Potentials of Panicum maximum Jacq. (Guinea grass) Leaf Extract on Wister Rats. Biology, Medicine, & Natural Product Chemistry. 2023;12(2):681-685.

Kumar S, Ritika. A. brief review of the biological potential of indole derivatives. Future Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2020;6(121):1-19.