Identification and Quantification of Phytochemicals in Ethanol Leaf Extract of Emilia praetermissa

Ikezu U. J. M. *

Department of Chemistry, Imo State University, Owerri, Nigeria.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Abstract

Emilia pratermissa, an erect annual medicinal plant from the family Asteracea used in treatment of different illnesses by the local populace was worked on, to determine the phytocompounds responsible for its therapeutic properties. The phytochemicals from the  leaves was extracted using ethanol maceration method. The extract was subjected to phytochemical analysis using harbour methods of phytochemical analysis which revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenoids, tannins, saponins, phenol and oxalate. The quantitative confirmation of the phytochemical analysis result using Gas Chromatography Flame Ionization Detector (GC-FID) revealed the presence of these phytocompounds with their concentration: Ammodendrine (5.95%), Phytate (14.50%), Hydroxylupanine (6.74%) Sapogenin (15.65%) Tannin (2.55%), Cardiac glycoside (1.00%), Epihedrine (9.05%), Anthocyanin (9.17%), Flavones (7.97%), Flavonone (5.25%), Proanthocyanidin (5.71%), Cyanogenic glycoside (3.96%) and Narigenin (8.39%). The presence of these phyto- compounds on the leaf extract of Emilia pratermissa proves the efficacy of this plant as acclaimed ethnomedically.

Keywords: Emilia pratemissa, phytochemicals, ethnomedicine, medicinal plant


How to Cite

J. M. , I. U. (2023). Identification and Quantification of Phytochemicals in Ethanol Leaf Extract of Emilia praetermissa. South Asian Research Journal of Natural Products, 6(3), 196–206. Retrieved from https://journalsarjnp.com/index.php/SARJNP/article/view/125

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Okigbo RN, Anuagasi CL, Amadi JE advances in selected medicinal and aromatic plants indigenous to Africa, journal of medicinal plant research, 2009; 3(2):86-95.

Medicinal Botany, US Forest Service. United States Department of Agriculture, fs.usda.gov.

Available:https://www.fs.usda.gov>wild flowers

WHO. Traditional Medicine: Growing Needs and Potentials. World Health Organization, Geneva; 2002.

Fokunang, C.N., Ndikum, V., and Kamsu, K. Traditional Medicine: Past, Present and Future Research and Development Prospects and Integration in the National Health System of Cameroon. Published online; 2011.

DOI:10.4314/ajtcam.v8i3.65276

Kiringe JW. Ecological and Anthropological Threats to Ethno-Medicinal Plant Resources and their Utilization in Maasiai Communal Ranches in the Amboseli Region of Kenya: Ethnobotany Research and Application; 2005.

Edu NE, Ubi GM, Ekpo PB, Ivon E. Efficacy and Phytochemical profiles of leaf extract of yellow tassel ( Emilia sonchifolia) plant on selected diarrhoeagenic pathogens, World Journal of Pharmaceutical and Medical Research 2017;3(7):08-13.

Ken F. Useful tropical plant database; 2014. Available:https://tropical.thefern.info.2023-07-24

Bhat KP. Medicinal plant information databases. In: Non-Wood Forest Products. Medicinal Plants for Conservation and Health Care, Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization; 1995.

Harborne JB. Phytochemical methods- a guide to modern techniques of plant analysis. Chapman and Hall, London. 1998;182-190.

Eluyode OS, Alabi OS. Preliminary Phytochemical Screening of Crude Extract of Commiphora, africanna on Infammation and Pain in Rodents. Asian Journal of Medical Science. 2007;2(3):811-84.

Aishz H, palwasha A, Hasnain N. Detention and Estimation of Alkaloids, Saponins and Tannins in Herbs of Quetta Baluchistan. American-Eurasian Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Science 2015;15(6):985-990.

Rajesh KS, Yadav RN. Qualitative Phytochemical Analysis and Estimation of Total Phenols and Flavonoids in leaf extract of Sarcochlamys pulcherrima wed. Global Journal of Bio-Science and Biotechnology. 2015;4(1):81-84.

Heinrich M, Mah J, Amirkia V. Alkaloids Used as Medicines: Structural Phytochemistry Meets Biodiversity-An Update and Forward Look. Molecules. 2021;26(7):1836. DOI: 10.3390/molecules26071836

PMID: 33805869 PMCID: PMC8036335

Kuete V. ()Health Effects of Alkaloids from African Medicinal Plants, Toxicological Survey of African Medicinal Plants,Elsevier publisher. 2014;21(1):611-634.

Ullah A, Munir S, Badshah SL, Khan N, Ghani L, Poulson BG, Emwas AH, Jaremko M. Important Flavonoids and Their Role as a Therapeutic Agent. Molecules. 2020;25(22):5243. DOI: 10.3390/molecules25225243

PMID: 33187049 PMCID: PMC7697716

Mamta R. Natural antioxidant (Flavone Glycoside) from Emilia sonchifolia (L.) DC. and its potential activity. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Science. 2012;4.

Nakayoma J, Yamada M. Suppression of active oxygen induced cytotoxicity by flavanoids. Biochem. Pharmcol. 1995;45: 265-267.

Miller AL Antioxidant flavanoids: structure, function and clinical usage. Alt. Med. Rev. 199;61:103.

Deepak KD, Chandra KT, Anil KS, Vaibhav T. Revisiting the medicinalvalue of terpenes and terpenoids; 2022.

DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.102612

Koczurkiewicz P, Katarzyna K,Grabowska K, Piska K, Katarzyna R, Katarzyna W, Irma P, Galanty A, Michalik M, Pękala E. Saponins as chemosensitizing substances that improve effectiveness and selectivity of anticancer drug—Minireview of in vitro studies, 2019;33(9):2141-2151.

Fraga-Corral M, Otero P, Cassani L, Echave J, Garcia-Oliveira P, Carpena M, Chamorro F, Lourenço-Lopes C, Prieto MA, Simal-Gandara J. Traditional Applications of Tannin Rich Extracts Supported by Scientific Data: Chemical Composition, Bioavailability and Bioaccessibility. Foods. 2021;10(2):251.

DOI: 10.3390/foods10020251 PMID: 33530516 PMCID: PMC7912241

Gouri KD. Traditional Uses, Phytochemical And Pharmacological Aspects Of Emilia sonchifolia (L.) DC, International Journal of Research in Ayurveda and Pharmacy; 2015.

DOI: 10.7897/2277-4343.064103

Wang J, Chen X, Chen Y, Qin F, Yang H. Pharmacological effects and mechanisms of tannic acid. Biomedicine and Pharmacotheraphy. 2022;154:113561. Available:https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0753332222009507

Ahn K. "The worldwide trend of using botanical drugs and strategies for developing global drugs". BMB Reports. 2017;50(3):111–116. DOI:10.5483/BMBRep.2017.50.3.221.

PMC 5422022 PMID 27998396

Ghasmzadeh A, Jaafar HZ, Rhamat A. Antioxidant Activities, Total Phenolics and Flavonoids Content in Two varieties of Malaysia Young Ginger, Molecules, 2010;(15):4324-4333.

Wikipedia. Ammodendrine; 2008. Available:www.wikipedia.org.

Retrieved 19/05/2023.

Alan RK, Christopher AR, Richard JK. Comprehensive Heterocyclic Chemistry III. Isoquinolizidine Alkaloids; Spartein. Science Direct; 2018. Available:https://www.sciencedirect.com.

DrugBank. DrugBank; 2020. Available:https://go.drugbank.com/drug.

Khan K, Peter RS. Wheat: Chemistry and Technology. A volume in American Associate of Cereal Chemists International. Fourth edition; 2009.

Bimol. Hydroxylupaine; 2016. Available:www.biomol.com.

Retrieval date, 20/07/2022.

Luque de Castro MD, Castillo P. Innovative food processing technologies. Woodhead Publishing Series in Food Science, Technology and Nutrition. 2016;157-160.

Charis MG. Innovations in Traditional Foods. Science Direct; 2019. www.sciencedirect.com.

Melissa P, Michele M, Tikkanen A. Tannin (biochemistry). The editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica; 2021.

Available: www.britannica.com

Antonella M, Nimmit VP. Cardiac Glycoside: what Are They, What are They Used for, How Do They Work, Side Effects and More; 2021. Available:www.osmosis.org.

Hugh CH, Telmage DE. Pharmacology and Physiology for Anaesthesia. Foundation and Clinical Application; 2019.

www.sciencedirect.com.

Ying L, Yory TC, Schouten RE, Marcelis LF, Richard GF, Arnaud B. Anthocyanidin. Science Direct; 2014.

Gregory LH, Robin AR, Steven JS. Flavones; Food Sources, Bioavailability, Metabolism, and Bioactivity. Advances in Nutrition. 2017;8(3):423-435.

Catechins; the science behind why tea is good for you. Available:https:// www.senchateabar.com

Richa S. Top 4 Examples of Flavanones with Uses; 2021. Available:www.biologydiscussion.com

Aar RM, Tanzila IE, Mohd. Faijanur RS, Asif S, Hossain A, Md. Mosfeq U, Nova R, Rahatul I, Uddin MR, Md. Furkanur RM. Natural flavonols: actions, mechanisms, and potential therapeutic utility for various diseases, Beni-Suef University Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences. 2023;12:Article number: 47.

Zuiter AS. Proanthocyandin: chemistry and biology from phenolic compounds to proanthocyanidins, reference module in chemistry, molecular sciences and chemical engineering; 2014.

Sayed MN, Ana SS. Non-vitamin and Non-mineral Nutritional Supplements; 2019.

Available:www.sciencedirect.com. Retrieval Date: 31/04/2023.