Antipyretic and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Ocimum gratissimum in Male Wistar Rats

Bruno Chukwuemeka Chinko *

Department of Human Physiology, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Port Harcourt, Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

Confidence Nhachikaru Orlu

Department of Biomedical Technology, School of Science Laboratory Technology, University of Port Harcourt, Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Abstract

Ocimum gratissimum (OG), commonly known as clove or African basil has a significant presence in the culinary world and has also been traditionally used as a remedy for a variety of health issues, such as fever and malaria. The present study evaluated the ameliorating effect of OG on fever and inflammation using Wistar rat models. OG used in this study was locally sourced and was extracted using ethanol by the method of Soxhlet to obtain O.gratissimum extract (OGE). Twenty (20) male Wistar rats were used for this study and were randomly grouped into four (4) groups of five (5) animals each. Groups I and II served as the negative and positive controls respectively and received distilled water and standard drugs respectively. Groups III, IV and V served as the experimental groups and received OGE at 200, 400 and 800mg/kg respectively. Anti-pyretic activities were determined using the brewer’s yeast-induced pyrexia test while anti-inflammatory activities were determined using the albumin-induced oedema test. The result from the antipyretic study shows that OGE significantly lowered the rectal temperature in a dose-dependent manner after 1, 2, and 3 hours of treatment (P<0.05). The results reveal that a dosage of 800mg/kg of OGE induced a greater reduction in rectal temperature (8.57%) compared to paracetamol (3.62%). Similarly, the result from the anti-inflammatory study shows that OGE significantly reduced paw thickness in Wistar rats after 1, 2 and 3hrs of treatment in a dose-dependent manner (P<0.05). Data also show that 800mg/kg of OGE produced a greater reduction in paw thickness (41.28%)  compared to diclofenac (31.17%). Based on the available data from the current study, it appears that ethanol extracts of O. gratissimum possess strong efficacy against fever and inflammation. These findings also show that OGE demonstrated a higher level of anti-inflammatory activity compared to antipyretic activity at a dosage of 800mg/kg. This study offers scientific evidence to support the traditional medicinal use of Ocimum gratissimum in treating malaria and other ailments associated with fever and inflammation.

Keywords: Ocimum gratissimum, fever, pyrexia, inflammation


How to Cite

Chinko, B. C., & Orlu, C. N. (2023). Antipyretic and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Ocimum gratissimum in Male Wistar Rats. South Asian Research Journal of Natural Products, 6(1), 28–38. Retrieved from https://journalsarjnp.com/index.php/SARJNP/article/view/106

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