Main Article Content
Aims: This study was carried out to examine and characterize the effects of protein isolates from unripe plantain on enzymes linked with type-2 diabetes(α-amylase) and obesity (Pancreatic Lipase) using an in vitro model.
Place and Duration of Study: Department of Biochemistry, Lagos State University, Ojo, Lagos, Nigeria between July 2019 and January 2020.
Methodology: Proteins were isolated from dried raw flour of unripe plantain, and enzyme inhibition assays were conducted in the presence of protein isolates using α-amylase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae and porcine pancreatic lipase. Acarbose and Orlistat were used as the standard inhibitors respectively. Percentage inhibition of the two enzymes and the IC50 values were determined. The effects of pH, temperature and salts on the inhibitory activity of the protein isolates were also determined.
Results: The protein isolates showed maximum percentage inhibition on α-amylase activity at 87% (IC50 value 0.46±1.9 mg/mL) compared with acarbose with a maximum inhibitory potential of 86% (IC50 value 0.51±3.6 mg/mL) and maximum percentage inhibition on pancreatic Lipase at 91% (IC50 value 0.73±3.2 mg/mL) compared with Orlistat with a maximum inhibitory potential of 97% (IC50 value 0.61±9.4 mg/mL). The optimum pH for both α-amylase and pancreatic lipase inhibitory activity was observed to be pH 9.0 and, the optimum temperature for α-amylase and pancreatic lipase inhibitory activity was observed to be at 40oC. At certain concentrations the inhibitory activities of the unripe plantain protein isolates were affected by the salts.
Conclusion: These results showed the presence of α-amylase and pancreatic lipase inhibitors in unripe plantain which indicates that this plant can be beneficial in the construction of anti-diabetes and anti-obesity medications.
Astrup A, Finer N. Redefining type 2 diabetes:‘diabesity’or ‘obesity dependent diabetes mellitus’? Obesity Reviews. 2000; 1(2):57-59.
Hu FB. Globalization of diabetes: The role of diet, lifestyle and genes. Diabetes Care. 2011;34(6):1249-1257.
Alberti KGMM, Zimmet P, Shaw J. International diabetes federation: A consensus on type 2 diabetes prevention. Diabetic Medicine. 2007;24(5):451-463.
Birari RB, Bhutani KK. Pancreatic lipase inhibitors from natural sources: Unexplored potential. Drug Discovery Today. 2007;12 (19-20):879-889.
Tiss A, et al. Inhibition of human pancreatic lipase by tetrahydrolipstatin: Further kinetic studies showing its reversibility. Journal of Molecular Catalysis B: Enzymatic. 2009; 58(1-4):41-47.
Mahomoodally MF, et al. Traditional medicinal herbs and food plants have the potential to inhibit key carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes in vitro and reduce postprandial blood glucose peaks in vivo. The Scientific World Journal; 2012.
Olaokun OO, et al. Evaluation of the inhibition of carbohydrate hydrolysing enzymes, antioxidant activity and polyphenolic content of extracts of ten African Ficus species (Moraceae) used traditionally to treat diabetes. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2013;13(1):94.
Truscheit E, et al. Chemistry and biochemistry of microbial α‐glucosidase inhibitors. Angewandte Chemie International Edition in English. 1981; 20(9):744-761.
Baron AD. Postprandial hyperglycaemia and α-glucosidase inhibitors. Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice. 1998;40: S51-S55.
Chiasson JL, et al. Acarbose for prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus: The STOP-NIDDM randomised trial. The Lancet. 2002;359(9323):2072-2077.
Meena AK, Bansal P, Kumar S. Plants-herbal wealth as a potential source of ayurvedic drugs. Asian Journal of Traditional Medicines. 2009;4(4):152-170.
Ghani A. Medicinal plants of Bangladesh: chemical constituents and uses. Asiatic society of Bangladesh; 1998.
Willett W, Manson J, Liu S. Glycemic index, glycemic load, and risk of type 2 diabetes. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2002;76(1):274S-280S.
Shodehinde S, Oboh G. Phenolic extracts of ‘Amala’ from unripe plantain (Musa paradisiaca) pulps inhibit key enzymes linked to type-2-diabetes and hypertension. FUTA Journal of Research in Sciences. 2013;9(1):123-134.
McCue PP, Shetty K. Inhibitory effects of rosmarinic acid extracts on porcine pancreatic amylase in vitro. Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2004;13(1).
Ali H, Houghton P, Soumyanath A. α-Amylase inhibitory activity of some Malaysian plants used to treat diabetes; with particular reference to Phyllanthus amarus. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2006;107(3):449-455.
Bustanji Y, et al. Inhibition of hormone sensitive lipase and pancreatic lipase by Rosmarinus officinalis extract and selected phenolic constituents. J Med Plants Res. 2010;4(21):2235-42.
Zheng CD, et al. Screening for anti-lipase properties of 37 traditional Chinese medicinal herbs. Journal of the Chinese Medical Association. 2010;73(6): 319-324.
Gibbs BF, Alli I. Characterization of a purified α-amylase inhibitor from white kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris). Food Research International. 1998;31(3):217-225.
Frantz S, et al. Repetitive postprandial hyperglycemia increases cardiac ischemia/ reperfusion injury: Prevention by the α-glucosidase inhibitor acarbose. The FASEB Journal. 2005;19(6):591- 593.
Kazeem M, et al. Comparative study on the α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory potential of different extracts of Blighia sapida Koenig. American Journal of Research Communication. 2013;1(7):178-192.
Lunagariya NA, et al. Inhibitors of pancreatic lipase: State of the art and clinical perspectives. EXCLI Journal. 2014; 13:897.
de la Garza AL, et al. Natural inhibitors of pancreatic lipase as new players in obesity treatment. Planta Medica. 2011;77(8):773-785.