Main Article Content
Aim: To study the in vitro inhibitory effect of C. odorata extracts on bacterial isolates from wound swab samples.
Place of Study: University of Medical Sciences Teaching Hospital, Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria, between January and June 2019.
Methodology: Wound swabs were collected from patients of University of Medical Sciences Teaching Hospital, Akure. Air-dried and powdered C. odorata leaves were extracted using distilled water and ethyl acetate and concentrated using a rotary evaporator. Qualitative phytochemical screening of C. odorata extracts was done by standard methods. Antibiotics susceptibility pattern of bacterial isolates to a panel of ten (10) conventional antibiotics was determined by disc diffusion method. Antibacterial activity of C. odorata extracts were determined using agar diffusion method.
Results: Pseudomonas aeruginosa was the most abundant bacteria isolated (40.30%) in this study. Chromolaena odorata aqueous extract had higher extraction yield (24.1%) than ethyl acetate extract. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of saponin, flavonoids, terpenoids, steroids, tannin, glycoside and phenol of C. odorata extracts. Proteus vulgaris exhibited 100% resistance against augmentin. The highest zone of inhibition observed with the C. odorata ethyl acetate extract was against P. aeruginosa (18.67±0.67 mm).
Conclusion: This study reveals the in vitro inhibitory effect of C. odorata extracts on bacteria isolated from wounds thus presenting them as potential antibacterial agents.
2. Alam G, Singh MP, Singh A. Wound healing potential of some medicinal plants. Int J. Pharm Sci Rev Res. 2011;9(1):136-145.
3. Hridhya KV, Kulandhaivel M. Antimicrobial activity of Chromolaena odorata against selected pyogenic pathogens. Int. l J. Pharm. Phyto Res. 2017;9(7):1001-1007.
4. Davies SC. The drugs don’t work: A Global threat. Penguin, London; 2013.
5. Mundy L, Pendry B, Rahman M. Antimicrobial resistance and synergy in herbal medicine. J. Herb. Med. 2016;6: 53–58.
6. Kuruvilla A. Herbal formulations as pharmacotherapeutic agents. Ind. J. Exp. Biol. 2002;40:7-11.
7. Natheer SE, Sekar C, Amutharaj P, Abdul Rahman MS, Khan KF. Evaluation of antibacterial activity of Morinda citrifolia, Vitex trifolia and Chromolaena odorata. African J. Pharm and Pharm. 2012;6(11): 783-788.
8. Ajao AT, Ajadi TS, Oyelowo MS. Evaluation of multiplicative killing effect of C. odorata extracts and β-lactam antibiotics against β-lactamase Producing bacteria, isolated from Selected Hospitals in Ilorin Metropolis. Ann of Biol Res. 2011; 2(4):76-84.
9. Maji S, Dandapat P, Ojha D, Maity C, Halder SK, Das Mohapatra PK, Pathak TK, Pati BR, Samanta A, Mondal KC. In vitro antimicrobial potentialities of different solvent extracts of ethnomedicinal plants against clinically isolated human pathogens. J. Phyto. 2010;2(4):57–64.
10. Chomnawang MT, Surassmo S, Nukoolkaran VS. Antimicrobial effects of Thai medicinal plants against acne-including bacteria. J. Ethnopharmacol. 2005;101:330-333.
11. Doss A, Parivuguna V, Vijayasanthi M, Sruthi S. Antibacterial evaluation and phytochemical analysis of certain medicinal plants, Western Ghats. Coimbatore. J. Res. Biol. 2011;1:24-29.
12. Pauillac S, Matsui M, Ronie SK, Darius HT, Chinain M, Laurent D. Characteriza-tion of the anti-inflammatory potential of Vitex trifolia L. (Labiatae), a multipurpose plant of the Pacific traditional medicine. J. Ethnopharmacol. 2009;126:427-433.
13. Agbabiaka TO, Samuel T, Sule IO. Susceptibility of bacterial isolates of wound infections to Chromolaena odorata. Ethnobotanical Leaflets. 2010;14:876-888.
14. Savoia, D. Plant derived antimicrobial compounds: Alternative to antibiotics. Future Microbiology. 2012;7:979-990.
15. Pondei K, Fente BG, Oladapo O. Current microbial isolates from wound swab, their culture and sensitivity pattern at the Niger Delta University Teaching Hospital, Olokobiri, Nigeria. Trop. Med and Health. 2013;41(2):49-53.
16. Chowdhury A, Ashrafuzzaman M, Ali H, Liza LN, Alizinnah KM. Antimicrobial activity of some medicinal plants against multidrug resistant human pathogen. Advances in Biosciences and Bioengineering. 2013;1(1):1-24.
17. Abiola C, Oyetayo VO. Isolation and biochemical characterization of microorganism associated with the fermentation of Kresting’s groundnut (Macrotyloma geocarpum). Res. J. Microbiol. 2016;11(2-3):47-55.
18. Naidoo KK, Coopoosamy RM, Naidoo G. Screening of Chromolaeana odorata (L.) king and robinson for antibacterial and antifungal properties. J. Med Plants Res. 2011;5(19):4859-4862.
19. Srisuda H, Suchada T, Piyaporn W, Niwat K, Sukhumaporn K. Antimicrobial activity of Chromolaena odorata extracts against bacterial human skin infections. Modern Appl Sci. 2016;10(2):159-171.
20. Odutayo F, Ezeamagu C, Kabiawu T, Aina D, Mensah-Agyei G. Phytochemical screening and antimicrobial activity of Chromolaena odorata leaf extract against selected microorganisms. J. Adv. Med Pharm Sci. 2017;13(4):1-9.
21. Prabhu K, Bhat S, Rao S. Bacteriologic profile and antibiogram and blood culture isolates in a pediatric care unit. Journal of Laboratory Physicians. 2010;2(2):85-88.
22. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. M100-S24 Performance standards for antimicrobial susceptibility testing: Twenty-Fourth Information Supplement. 2014;34 (1):1-226.
23. Akinyemi AI, Ogundare AO. Antibacterial properties of the leaf extracts of Anthocleista djalonensis A. chev on some pathogenic organisms. European J. Med. Plants. 2014;4(1):75-85.
24. Yahya MFZR, Ibrahim MSA, Zawawi WMAWM, Hamed UMA. Biofilm killing effect of Chromolaena odorata extracts against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Res J Phytochem. 2014;8(3):64. Imarenezor EPK. Identification of bacteria associated with wounds in Wukari and Environs, North-East, Nigeria. Am Ass Sci Tech J Health. 2017;4(5):63-67.
25. Khanam RA, Islam R, Sharif A, Parveen R, Sharmin I, Yusuf A. Bacteriological profiles of pus with antimicrobial sensitivity pattern at a Teaching Hospital in Dhaka City Bangladesh J Infec Dis. 2018;5(1):10-14.
26. Tiwari P, Kumar B, Kaur M, Kaur G, Kaur, H. Phytochemical screening and extraction: A review. International Pharmaceutica Sciencia. 2011;1(1):98-106.
27. Enwuru CP, Otokunefor K, Otokunefor TV. Antibiotics susceptibility profile of Gram negative isolates from wound swabs. J Med Lab Sci. 2019;29(1):37-44.
28. Mahesh RP, Dipti S, Shovana T. Antibiogram of bacterial species causing skin wound infection. Novel Res Microbiol Journal. 2018;2(3):53-60.
29. Messele A, Estifanos T, Meseret C. Isolation, identification and antibiotics susceptibility pattern of bacteria isolated from wounds of patients attending at Arsho Advanced Medical Laboratory. Sci J Clin Med. 2018;7(2):20-24.
30. Adwan G, Hasan NA, Sabra I, Sabra D, Al-butmah S, Odeh S, Albake ZA, Badran H. Detection of bacterial pathogen in surgical site infection and their antibiotics sensitivity profile. Int J Med Res Health Sci. 2016;5 (5):75-82.
31. Alil M, Nas FS, Yahaya A, Ibrahim IS. Characterization and determination of antibiotics sensitivity pattern of bacteria from infected wound. Annals of Microbiolo. Infect. Dis. 2018;1(1):1-6.
32. Mahat P, Manandhar S, Baidya R. Bacteriological profile of wound infection and antibiotics susceptibility pattern of the isolates. Journal of Microbiology and Experimentation. 2017; 4(5):1-8.
33. Asdesach T, Adane B, Tsehaynesh L. Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of bacterial isolates from wound infection at All Africa Leprosy, Tuberculosis and Rehabilitation Training Centre, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. EC Microbiol. 2018;14 (7):391-399.
34. Mbajiuka CS, Obeagu EI, Chude CN, Ihezie OE. Antimirobial effects of Chromolaena odorata on some human pathogens. Int J Curr Microbiol Appl Sci. 2014;3(3):1006-1012.
35. Oko JO, Audu JA, Ojeleye FS, Okey Q, Jakheng SP, Shittu KJ. Comparative assessment of antibacterial activity of Chromolaena odorata leaf extracts against selected clinical bacterial isolates. J Adv Microbiol. 2017;2:1-8.