Main Article Content
Objective: Snake-bite is one of the important public health problems of tropical countries including Sri Lanka. The risk of snake-bites is higher in rural areas of the country and people mainly rely on herbal medicines. Antiserum is the only therapeutic agent in Western medicine available throughout the world. A major drawback of serum therapy is its higher cost and also serum sickness is a possible side effect of serum therapy that results in inflammation of tissues and other symptoms. In the present study, an attempt was taken to prepare a traditional herbal paste which used to treat snake-bites and carry out chemical analysis.
Methods: Chemical analysis carried out by investigation of its(a) phytochemical constituents (b) total phenol and flavonoid contents and (c) development of Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) fingerprints.
Results: Results revealed that phenols, flavonoids, tannins and saponins were abundant in the herbal paste whereas coumarins, terpenoids and alkaloids were absent. Further high amounts of total phenols (120.30±0.83 mg gallic acid equivalents /g) and flavonoids (69.76±1.62 quercetin equivalents /g) were present in the herbal paste. TLC fingerprints were able to develop for the traditional herbal formulation and its mixture of ingredients.
Conclusion: Present study revealed the presence of phytochemicals such as phenols, flavonoids, tannins and saponins in the traditional herbal preparation.
Laxme RRS, Khochare S, de Souza HF, Ahuja B, Suranse V, Martin G, Whitaker R, Sunagar K. Beyond the “big four”:Venom profiling of the medically important yet neglected Indian snakes reveals disturbing anti venom deficiencies. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2019;13(12):e0007899.
Minghui R, Malecela MN, Cooke E, Abela-Ridder B. WHO snakebite envenoming strategy for prevention and control. Lancet Glob. Health. 2019;7:e837–38.
Maduwage K, Isbister GK, Silva A, Bowatta S, Mendis S, Gawarammana I. Epidemiology and clinical effects of hump –Nosed pit viper (Genus: Hypnale) envenoming in Sri Lanka. Toxicon. 2013;61:11-15.
Ediriweera DT, Kasturirathne A, Pathmaperuma A, Gunawardene NK, Wjayawickrama BA, Jayamanne SF, et al. Mapping the risk of snakebite in Sri Lanka –A national survey with geospatial analysis. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2016;10(7): e0004813.
Reddy KSN. The essentials of forensic medicine and toxicology, 15th edition, Chapter. 1995;29:448-449.
Yadav RNS, Agarwala M. Phytochemical analysis of some medicinal plants. J Phytol. 2011;3:10-14.
Karunakaran R, Thabrew MI, Thammitiyagodage GM, Galhena BP, Arawwawala LDAM. The gastro protective effect of ethyl acetate fraction of hot water extract of Trichosanthes cucumerina Linn and its underlying mechanisms. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2017;17:312.
Singleton VL, Orthofer R, Lamuela-Raventos RM. Analysis of total phenols and other oxidation substrates and anti-oxidants by means of Folin-Ciocalteu reagent Methods. Enzymol. 1999;299:152-178.
Meda A, Lamien CE, Romito M, Millogo J, Nacoulma OG. Determination of the total phenolic, flavonoid and proline contents in Burkina Fasan honey, as well as their radical scavenging activity. Food Chem. 2005;91:571–577.
Alirol E, Sharma SK, Bawaskar HS, Kuch U, Chappuis F. Snakebite in South Asia: A review. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2010;4(1): e603.
Gupta YK, Peshin SA. Do herbal medicines have potential for managing snake bite envenomation? Toxicol Int. 2012;19(2):89–99.
Enenebeaku CK, Umerie SC, Nwankwo MU, Enenebeaku UE. Anti-snake venom activities of the leaf extracts of Asystasia gangetica (L) and Newbouldia leaves (p. Beauv). World News Nat. Sci. 2018;16:33-41.
Havsteen E. Flavonoids, a class of natural products of high pharmacological potency. Biochem Pharmacol. 2003;32(7):1141-1148.
Premendran SJ, Salwe KJ, Pathak S, Brahmane R, Manimekalai K. Anti-cobra venom activity of plant Andrographis paniculate and its comparison with polyvalent anti-snake venom. J Nat Sci Biol Med. 2011;2:198–204.
Soares AM, Ticli FK, Marcussi S, Lourenco MV, Januarrio AH, Sampaio SV et al. Medicinal plants with inhibitory properties against snake venoms. J Curr Med Chem. 2005;12(22):2625–2641.
Shinwari MI, Khan MA. Folk use of medicinal herbs of Margalla hills National Park, Islamabad. J Ethnopharmacol. 2000;69(1):45-46.
Gomes A, Das R, Sarkhel S, Mishra R, Mukherjee S, Bhattacharya S, Gomes A. Herbs and herbal constituents active against snake bite. Indian J Exp Biol. 2010;48:865-878.
Da Silva JO, Fernandes RS, Ticli FK, Oliveira CZ, Mazzi MV, Franco JJ, Giuliatti S, Pereira PS, Soares AM, Sampaso SV. Triterpenoid saponins, new metalloprotease snake venom inhibitors isolated from Pentaclethra macroloba. Toxicon. 2007;50(2):283–291.
Karunaratne TDN, Sugataratana K, Ariyawansa HAS, Silva HAD, Samarasingha K, Arawwawala LDAM. Standardization of sarasvatha choorna: Used as a remedy for dementia. American J Clin Exp Med. 2015;3:288-292.
Kumaradharmasena LSP, Arawwawala LDAM, Fernando PIPK, Peiris KPP, Kamal SV. Quality assessment of Mustadi Taila: An ayurvedic oil as remedy for dental caries (Krimi Danta). J Pharmacogn Phytochem. 2015;4:21– 24.
Perera KC, Arawwawala M, Wijeratne S, Mathew D. Physico-chemical and proximate analysis of poly herbal formula-Palakalyana Ghrita. J Ayu Herb Med. 2018;4(3):132 – 134.