Antimicrobial Potential of the Crude Extracts and Peptide Fractions of Two Marine Molluscs: Tympanatonus fuscatus Var Radula (Linneaus) and Pachymelania aurita (Muller)

Main Article Content

Eghianruwa Queensley
Omolaja Osoniyi
Adeyemo Stella
Maina Naomi
Imbuga Mabel

Abstract

Aims: This study was aimed at evaluating the antimicrobial potential of the alcohol and aqueous extracts as well as peptide fractions of T. fuscatus and P. aurita.


Place and Duration of Study: Department of Microbiology, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria.


Methodology: The antimicrobial activity of the whole body aqueous and acetone-methanol extracts of T.fuscatus Var Radula and P.aurita, collected from the Niger-Delta region of Nigeria, were evaluated based on inhibition zone diameter using the agar well diffusion method against ten bacterial isolates and C. albicans. These organisms were further used in the TLC bioautography experiment. The peptide fraction from the organic extracts of both organisms was obtained by Molecular sieve chromatography on Sephadex LH20. Peaks obtained were pooled and further analysed on TLC. A simple contact TLC bioautographic procedure was used to detect the number of antibacterial and antifungal peptides present in the extracts of both T. fuscatus and P. aurita.


Results: The aqueous extract of both T. fuscatus and P. aurita had no antimicrobial effect against the test microorganisms whereas the acetone-methanol extract showed broad-spectrum antibacterial activity against five bacterial isolates at the highest concentration (100 mg/ml). It also showed inhibition against C. albicans at this concentration (100 mg/ml).


All the peptides exhibited bactericidal activity against the five test bacterial isolates and bacteriostatic activity against C. albicans. This activity was denoted by inhibition of growth in the region in which the peptides on the TLC plate made contact with the agar containing the isolates.


Conclusion:  Further studies to effectively separate these peptide fractions into individual peptides and further investigate the antimicrobial activity of the individual peptides is required.

Keywords:
Antimicrobial, crude extracts, Tympanatonus fuscatus, Pachymelania aurita.

Article Details

How to Cite
Queensley, E., Osoniyi, O., Stella, A., Naomi, M., & Mabel, I. (2019). Antimicrobial Potential of the Crude Extracts and Peptide Fractions of Two Marine Molluscs: Tympanatonus fuscatus Var Radula (Linneaus) and Pachymelania aurita (Muller). South Asian Research Journal of Natural Products, 2(3), 1-10. Retrieved from http://journalsarjnp.com/index.php/SARJNP/article/view/30084
Section
Original Research Article

References

Benkendorff K. Molluscan biological and chemical diversity: Secondary metabolites and medicinal resources produced by marine molluscs. Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc. 2010;85(4):757-775.
Available:https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-185x.2010.00124.x

Datta D, Talapatra SN, Swarnakar S. Bioactive compounds from marine invertebrates for potential medicines – An overview. Int Lett Nat Sci Online, 2015;34:42-61.
Available:https://doi.org/10.18052/www.scipress.com/ilns.34.42

Mahlapuu M, Håkansson J, Ringstad L, Björn C. Antimicrobial peptides: An emerging category of therapeutic agents. Front Cell Infect Microbiol. 2016;6:194.
Available:https://doi.org/10.3389/fcimb.2016.00194

Bahar AA, Ren D. Antimicrobial peptides. Pharmaceuticals. 2013;6(12):1543-1575.
Available:https://doi.org/10.3390/ph6121543

Bechinger B, Gorr SU. Antimicrobial Peptides: Mechanisms of action and resistance. J Dent Res. 2016;96(3):254-260.
Available:https://doi.org/10.1177/0022034516679973

Haney EF, Mansour SC, Hancock RE. Antimicrobial peptides: An introduction. Meth Mol Biol. 2017;1548:3-22.
Available:https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4939-6737-7_1

Eghianruwa Q, Osoniyi O, Wachira S, Maina N, Mbugua R, Imbuga M. In vitro antiproliferative studies of extracts of the marine molluscs: Tympanatonus fuscatus Var radula (linnaeus) and Pachymelania aurita (muller). Int J Biochem Mol Biol. 2019;10(1):1-8.

Adegoke AA, Tom M, Okoh A, Jacob S. Studies on multiple antibiotic resistant bacterial isolated from surgical site infection. Scientific Research and Essays. 2010;5(24):3876-3881.

Osoniyi RO, Onajobi FD. Effect of pH and buffer concentration on the biosynthesis of Prostaglandin-like compounds by Ocimum gratissimum leaves. Nigerian J Biochem Mol Biol. 1998;13:14-47.

Masoko P, Eloff JN. Bioautography indicates the multiplicity of antifungal compounds from twenty-four southern African Combretum species (Combretaceae). African J Biotech. 2006;5: 1625–1647.
Available:https://doi.org/10.5897/AJB06.266

Suleiman MM, McGaw LJ, Naidoo V, Eloff JN. Detection of antimicrobial compounds by bioautography of different extracts of leaves of selected South African tree species. Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med. 2010;7(1):64–78.
Avaialble:https://doi.org/10.4314/ajtcam.v7i1.57269

Karaman I, Sahin F, Güllüce M, Gütçü HÖ, Sengül M, Adigüzel A. Antimicrobial activity of aqueous and methanol extracts of Juniperus oxycedrus L. J Ethnopharmacol. 2003;85:231–235.
Available:https://doi.org/10.1016/s0378-8741(03)00006-0

Santhiya N, Sanjeevi SB. Antibacterial activity of freshwater Mussel Parreysia corrugata (Muller 1774) from Lower Anaicut Reservoir, India. Int J Pharm Life Sci. 2014;5(10):3899-3902.

Seleman NS, Amri E. Antibacterial activity of aqueous, ethanol and acetone extracts of Ocimum sanctum Linn. Amer J Bio Sci. 2015;3(6):256-261.
Available:https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ajbio.20150306.18

Dewanje S, Gangopadhyay M, Bhattabharya N, Khanra R, Dua TK. Bioautography and its scope in the field of natural product chemistry. J Pharm Anal. 2014;5(2):75-84 Available:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpha.2014.06.002